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Full text of "A practical treatise on the ordinary operations of the Holy Spirit"

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A 


PRACTICAL TREATISE 


ON 


THE ORDINARY OPERATIONS 


OF 



bt jiolp 
pítít. 


BY 


THE REV. G. S. FABER, B. D. 


ItECTOR OF LOlooG-NEWTON, IN THE COUNTY AND DIOCES!: 
OF DURHAM. 


--. 


II1IEup.a 
w(j7r()'='. 2 Cor. iii. 6. 


",.,. ..
&.
 - '" 


01 cr

>e.I"OI 'Trl. 7rYEUfLUT.>e.rx 7rprxCTCT'!11I ou f)ullctIlTa., ou&! 
fl. 7r1l!UfLrxT'XOI Trx CTct
xlxa. Ignat. Epist. ad Ephes. 


- - .. 


SECOND EDITION. 


)!..ontJot1 : 


PRINTED BY A. J. VALPY, 
TOOKE'S COURT, CHAKCERY LANE, 


;'{)Jl MESSRS. F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH YARD. 
. 


1814. 




TO 


THE INHABITANTS 


OF THE THREE PARISHES OF 


STOCKTON-UPON-TEES, REDMARSHALL, 
AND LONG-
 EWTON; 


()F WHICH, IN THE COURSE OF THE LAST SEVEN 


YEARS, BY THE UNUE1\IITTING KINDNESS OF 


ONE REVERED PATIlON, THE AUTHOR 


HAS BEEN SUCCESSIVELY VICAR on. 


RECTOR; THIS WORK IS INSCRIBED 
BÝ TH EIR SINCERE FRIE ND AND 


WELL-WISHER, 


G. S. FABER. 




ADVERTISEl\IENT. 


- ... ... 


t- 


THE Reader 'l
ill perceive by the date annexed to the 
.Preface, tltat this work has been 'liJritten several !fears. 
In fact, the Author was in no haste to publish on a sub- 
ject which, however important, requires some degree cif 
prudence in the discussion. It has been his wish to ex/tiMt 
'l
)hat ',e believes, to the best of his judgment, to be the 
doctrines and practice taught by that pure alld apostolical 
Church, of which he feels it his privilege to be a minister. 
111 revising what lte has written, thouglt rifter a consider- 
able period of time, he did not find that any alteratiolls 
rære necessary beyond mere 'Verbal corrections. 


Long-Newton Rector!/, 
Jan. 16, 1813. 




PREF ACE. 


.. -- 


EVERY person, who is in the least d
- 
gree acquainted ,vith the corruption of the 
human heart, will readily ackno,vledge, 
that his o,vn unassisted abilities are total1y 
unequal to the task of faithfully serving 
God. Repeated violations of the most 
solemn resolutions of amendment have 
shown him his ,veakness; and his numer- 
ous lapses have ,vofuHy convinced him, 



x 


that he 
tands in need of sOlne divine con.. 
ductor to lead him in safety through the 
perilous journey of life. Such a guide is 
promised in Scripture to every sincere 
Christian. 


'Ve are not to suppose, that the ordi- 
nal'Jj operations of the Holy Spirit ,vere 
confined to the apostolic age. Human 
nature is much alike, at all periods, and in 
all countries. Though Christianity is no,v 
.... 
established, and though miraculous inter- 
ference is no longer necessary to the well- 
being of the Church; yet the present race 
of men ,viII never be essentially better 
than their heathen predecessors, so long 
as they rest satisfied with having only 
out,vardly embraced the religion of the" 



. 
Xl 



Iessiah. A mere hypocritical and exter- 
nal profession of faIth cannot be pleasing 
to that God, ,vho regards motives no less 
than actions. A radical change 111ust take 
place in the heart, as well as an out\vard 
reformation in the Ulan ners; and this 
change can only be effected by the agency 
of son1e superior power. The heart is as 
Inuch averse now to the genuine practice 
of piety, as it ,vas in the days of the 
Apostles; and, though we have no longer 
to combat the horrors of persecution, we 
have still to struggle ,vith the unwillingness 
and corruption of the soul. If the whole 
of religion consisted in the bare belief of 
certain tenets and in the due obser"ance 
of certain ceremonies, we should find very 
little difficulty in L>econlillg thoroughly 



. . 
XII 


religious characters. But, ,vhen \ve are 
called upon to begin the \vork of self- 
reformation: when ,ve are required to love 
God with all our heart, ,vith aU our soul, 
and with all our strength; ,vhen \ve are 
enjoined to prefer, upon all occasions, his 
will to our own, and to sacrifice our bosoIn 
sins, our darling vices, upon the altar of 
Christianity; then conlmences the struggle: 
the inbred venom of our nature in1me- 
diately sho\vs itself; our very spirit rises 
both against the law and the la\vgiver; and 
,ve discover the utter ÏInpossibility of ,rrork- 
iug any change in our affections merely by 
our own efforts. N 0 huma
t arguluents 
can persuade a man to love what he hates, 
and to delight in \vhat he detests. Sub- 
n1Ïssion they 111ay perhaps teach hin1 ; but 



XIll 


. 
it ,viII be the sullen submission of a slave, 
not the cheerful acquiescence of a son. 
To prod uce this change is the peculiar 
office of the Holy Spirit; and, since none 
but he can produce it, his ordinary influ- 
ence is absolutely and universally necessary 
at present, and ,vill be equaUy so even to 
the very end of the ,vorld. 


In the fonowing pages, I have en- 
deavoured to state what appears to me 
the plain doctrine of Scripture and the 
Church of England. Though 'we are re- 
peatedly assured by the word of God, 
that of ourselves "Te can do no good thing; 
yet we are never represented as mere ma- 
chines, subjected to an overwhelming and 
irresistible influence. The aid of the Holy 



. 
XIV 


Spirit is freely offered unto all; nor does 
that blessed Person cease to strive even 
with the 1110st profligate, tin they have 
obstinately rejected the counsel of God 
against themselves. The still small voice 
of conscience, ,vhich is in effect the voice 
of God, long continues to admonish them; 
and the extreme difficulty, ,vhich they find 
in silencing it
 sufficiently shows ho,v un- 
willing the Ahnighty is tha't any should 
perish. All, that ,viII, Inay be saved; for 
our Ijord hath expressly declared, that, 
whosoever cometh unto hinl, he ,viII in no 
,vise cast him out. Let none therefore 
despair on the ground of their being 
rejec
ed by a trernendous and irreversible 
I 
decree of exclusion: for surely, if such a 
decree existed, God's repeated expostula- 



xv 


tions with t'inners for slighting his gracious 
offers, when at the same time they lay 
under a fatal necessity of slighting them, 
,vould be a solemn mockery, unworthy of 
a being of infinite mercy and holiness. 


In fact, the general experience of man- 
kind perfectly agrees ,vith Scripture. 
There never Jet ,vas a good man ,vho did 
not find that he both required and received 
divine. assistance to enable him to over- 
con1e his corruptions; and there never yet 
was a bad man, ,vho did not perceive 
somewhat within hin1 forcibly restraining 
hiIn from the cOlnmission of sin, and ,vann- 
ly urging him to the practice of holiness. 
Half of the follies and vanities of the 
world are IHere contrivances to silence 



" 


. 
XVI 


this troublesome monitor. lJlen love dark- 
ness rather than light, simply because their 
deeds are evil. 


May 21, 1800. 



CO NTENTS. 


'I _ ... 


CH AP. J. 


THE necessity of the ordinary operations of the 
Holy Spirit shown from a view of the state of 
man by nature; his understanding, his will, and 
his affections, being all depraved in conse- 
quence of original sin .................... ] 


PAGa 


.. 
 ..... 


CHi\P. II. 


The illumination of the understanding through the 
influence of the Holy Spirit, tbe first work of 
grace in the buman soul ................. . g
 


II 



XVlU 


CONTENTS. 


CHAP. III. 


I-AGE 


A description of two different classes of men, 
whose understandings are enlightened, while 
their hearts remain unaffected. · · · .'.. · .. · · · · 79 


,. . I 


CHAP. IV. 


The influence of the Holy Spirit upon the will .. .. lOZ 


- . 


CHAP. V. 


The influence of the Holy Spirit upon the atfec.. 


tions .................................. ] 84 


. ßII' .. 


CHAP. VI. 


The Holy Spirit, a comforter, and an intercessor 165 



CONTENTS. 


xix 


CHAP. VIl. 


PAGE 


The fruits of the Spirit contrasted with the wor
s 
of the flesh ...................... .-. . . . . 193 


.. - . 


CHAP. VIII. 


The constant influence of the Holy Spirit neces- 
sary to conduct us in safety to the end of our 
pilgrimage · .. . .. .... · · . · · . . . · . . . . · . . . . . . 283 




.A 


PRACTICAL TREATISE 


OoN 


THE ORDINARY OPERATIONS 


OF THE 



olp 
pítít. 


-.-.- 


CHAP. I. 


The necessity of the ordirwry operations cif tI,e Spi1 it 
Mto'Wn from a 'View of the $tate of man by nature ; his 
understanding, his 'a'ill, and his affictions, h
iTlg all 
depraved in consequence of original sin. 


- 


I N the last solen1n discourse, :which 
 our 
blessed Lord addressed to his discipJes ÌIn... 
mediately before his bitter sufferings upon 
the cross, he promised them another Com- 
forter, who should abide ,vith them for 
ever. Though he himself was about to be 
shortly separated from them and to sit down 
at the fight hand of his Father, yet his 
A 



2 


place 
hould be abundantly supplied by 
the effusion of the Spirit of truth. The 
,vorld indeed cannot receive this divine 
Person, because it 
f.jceth ltin
 not, neither 
knou'eth ltiln; but it i
 the peculiar charac- 
teristic of the true disciples of Christ, that 
they do kno\v hin), jor he dwelleth with 
theIn, and shall be in them. 1 Accordingly, 
in due season, and pursuant to the decla- 
ration of Christ, the I-Io]y G host descended 
upon the .Apostles, and conferred upon 
thern spiritual gifts both e$traordina1'y and 
ordinary. By the reception of the jorlller 
they ,vere speciaHy qualified to discharge 
the duties of their ilnportant office, and 
'vere awfully and incontrovertibly accredit- 
ed to every nation as the peculiar delegates 
of heaven: by the reception of the latter 
they were enlinentJy endowed ,vith all the 
pure dispositions of a renewed heart, and 


· John xiv. 16. 



:3 


,vere enabled to testify the reality of their 
internal change by an exact holiness of life 
and conversation. 


ExtraOlyZinar!J gifts they received for the 
benefit of the church: o1'dinal'Y. gifts they 
received for their own personal benefit. 
Extraordinarry gifts \vere conferred upon a 
few only: of those ol'dinal'y gifts, without 
,vhich no real sanctificat.ion can be attained, 
,vithout which a man must labour under a 
physical incapacity of enjoying the kingdom 
of heayen, it is the privilege of every genu- 
ine Christian to be a partaker. They are 
ordinary, not as inferior in point of import- 
ance to the possessor (for in this respect 
they are superior); but as gifts ordinarily 
besto\ved upon all the faithful, and not limit- 
ed after an extraordinary nlanner to afew. 


Since those miraculous powers, which 
,vere conferred upon the founders of the 



4 


Christian church, ,vere designed only for a 
8pecial and determinate purpose; as that 
purpose was gradually accomplished, the 
po\vers ,vere gradually ,vithdrawJ1, until at 
length they entirely ceased. The religion 
of the l\lessiah, after the lapse of three 
centuries, obtained a firm establishment; 
princes became its nursing fathers; and 
they, . 'v ho refused to yield to the voice of 
reason and evidence, had no longer convic- 
tion forced upon theln by a supernatural 
interference of heaven. Signs and wonders. 
ceased to attend the preaching of the GOi- 
pe}; yet the promise, that the I-Ioly Spirit . 
should abide for ever with the disciples of 
Christ, remained unbroken, and ,ve trust 
will remain unbroken to the very end 
of tilne. Neither the sight of Iniracles, nor 
the ability of performing them, has simpl, 
and pc'/' se any effect upon the human heart. 
They may perhaps dreadfully cOl1vince the 
understanding; but God alone can convert 



5 


the 
ouI. The state of man by nature is 
precisely the saine no\v, as it ,vas in the 
days of the Apostles: consequently, if it 
were then necessary that the I-:fo!y Spirit 
$hould rfprove the world of sin, of'rigllteous- 
ness, and of judgment; it is no Jess neces- 
sary in the present age. The ,vorld indeed 
is called Christian; but practical infidelity 
still flourishes in aU its banefulluxuriancy. 
It matters not ,vhat a man is denominated, 
so long as his heart is alienated from God; 
and a bare assent of his understanding ,vill 
be of little avail, if his life prove hirll to be 
the slave of Satan. On this account the 
ordinary operations of the Spirit are conti- 
nued, though the exil'aordif1ary ones haye 
long been unkno,vn in the church of 
Christ. 


A state of nature is constantly opposed 
in Scripture to a state of grace. The first 
is the ,vretched inheritance bequeathed to 



6 


us by our comnlon progenitor Adam: the 
second is the free and unmerited gift of 
God the Father, purchased for us by God 
the Son, and cOll'Teyed to us by God the 
floly Ghost. 'rhe whole then of the ,vork J 
carried on in the soul of man by the third 
person of the blessed Trinity, may be briefly 
defined; ./1 gradllalrcstoration of that image 
of God, in tlte likeness oj' which Ada17l was 
created, and the lineaments of which were 
totally obliterated by sill. I 'fhe ,vork is 


· "To discovcr wherein such image and likeness con- 
sisted, what Letter method can we take, than to inquire 
wherein consist that divine image apd likeness, which, as 
the Scriptures of the r\ ew 
restamel1t inform us, were 
restored in human nature, iÏlrriugh the redemption and 
grace of Christ, who was manifested for that purpose. 
The image restored was the image lost; and the image 
lost was that, in which Adam was created. The expres- 
sions, employed by the penmen of the New Testament, 
plainly point out to us this method of proceeding-Re- 
12e'lDed in kllou:leäge after the image of him that created 
him-Put on the new man, rohich after God is created in 
1'ighteollsness and true holiness. The divine image then is 



7 


begun, continued, and perfected, by the 
HoJy Spirit. I-Ie is equaUy the author and 
the finisher of our faith; and without him 
we can do no good thing. From the first 
faint motions of spiritual ]ife to its final 
consummation in the realms of everlasting 
- happiness, all the honour and an the glory 
of our growth In grace be ascribed unto 
him! 


'Vh
n the Almighty ceased from the 
work of creation, he pronounced all that he 
had made to be very good. The ne'v "orId 
'vas as yet free frorn the inroads of sin, and 
from the curse of sterility. 


to be found in the understanding, and the will; in the 
understanding which knows the truth, and in the will 
which loves it.- This divine image is restored in human 
nature by the word of Christ enlightening the understand- 
ing, and the grace of Christ rectifying the will." Bp. 
Horne's Sermons, vol. i. p. 2.0, 
1, 22. 



8 


J . 


Nature then 
'V anton' d as in her prime, and play'd at will 
Her virgin fancies 


The ,vhole creation smiled upon Ulan, 
and the golden age of the poets was realized. 
Blessed with perfect health both mental and 
corporeal, our heaven-born progenitor was 
equally unconscious of the stings of guilt 
and the pangs of disease. His understand... 
ing ,vas unclouded ,vith the mists of vice, 
ignorance, and error; his wilJ, thoñgh ab- 
solutely free, ,vas yet entirely devoted to the 
service of God; and his affections, ,vann, 
vigorous, and undivided, \vere ardentJy bent 

 upon the great fountain of his existence. 
Though vested in an earthly body, his soul 
,vas as the soul of an angel, pure, just, and 
upright. He ,vas uncontan1inated \vith the 
5maUest sin, and free from even the slight- 
est taint of pollution. His passions, per... 



9 


fectJy under the guidance of his rea:son, 
yielded a ready and cheerful obedience 
to the dictates of his conscience; an 
obedience, not constrained and irksome, 
but full, unreserved, and attended ,vith 
sensations of unn1Íxed delight. Such was 
man when he came forth from the hand of 
his Creator, the image of God stanlped 
upon his soul and influencing all his 
actions. 


This blissful state of innocence 'was 
oon 
forfeited by our first parents. In an evil 
hour thcJ yielded to the suggestions of the 
tempter, and violated the express conlmand 
of' God. Pride, that most deeply rooted 
bane of our llature, was no,v, for the first 
time, infused into the heart of the ,voman. 
She vainly desired a greater share of ,vis.. 
dO,nl, than God had been pleased to grant 
unto her; and, ,in order to obtain that 



10 


,visdonl, scrupIed not to disobey her l\Ia.. 
kef. The man followed her exam pIe, and 
joined her in a mad rebelIion against 
heaven. Sin entered into the ".orId and 
death closely followed its footsteps. The 
Inlage of God was obhterated, and the 
in1age of Satan was erected in its stead. 


l\lysterious as the doctrine of original 
depravitYl'nay be, no luan, unIess he be to. 
taJly unacquainted with the workings of his 
own heart, can possibly doubt its actnal 
existence. Sonle persons indeed are so far 
blinded hy the deceitfulness of sin as to de- 
ny the doctrine in question; but" I verily 
believe," to use the words of the excellent 
Beveridge, "that the want of such a due 
sense of themselves argues as much original 
corruption, as ]l1urder and whoredom do 
actual pollution: and I shall ever suspect 
those to be the most under the po,ver of 



11 


that corruption, that labour lnost by argu- 
ßlents to divest it of its power."1 


I. Examine first the understanding, and 
you \vill find it, at least so far as relates to 
spiritual things, dark and confused. 


The Apostle, describing the state of the 
world previous to the diffusion of Christian 
knowledge, asserts, that n:en had become 
vain in their imaginations, and that t.1tir fool- 
ish heart was darkened; that, professing them- 
selve
 to be wise, they became fouls; and, 
though proud of their attainU1cnts in a subtle 
philosophy, that in the sight of God they 
were without understanding." In a siInilar 
ßlanncr he elsewhere declares, that the natu- 
ral man 1'cceivetlt not the things of' the Spirit 
oj" God; for tltey are foolishness unto lâ,n : 
neitltercan he know theIn, because they are spi- 


· Private Thoughts, Art. iv. & Rom. i. 21, 
2. SI. 



1
 


ritually disce1.ned. ' His knowledge of divine 
matters, in consequence of his being de- 
based by the fall, is as much inferior to 
true heavenly wisdom, as the instinct of a. 
brute is to the reason of a human b
ing. 
On this account, as St. Paul scruples not 
strongly to express himself, even the 
,visdom of the i\.lmighty himself is foo1ish- 
nes
 to man in a state of nature. Having 
no faculties capable in themselves of em- 
bracing spiritual truths, he is as much un.. 
qualified to decide upon them, as a man 
born blind is to discriminate between the 
various tints of the rainbo\v; for, as the 
one is defective in spiritual, so is the other 
in corporeal, discernment. No tr
atise on 
light and colours, however minute and ac- 
curate, can give a distinct idea of their 
nature to a man born bJind; nor can any 
description of spiritual things, however 


I 1 Cor. ii. 14. 



13 


just, COffilTIUnicate a clear conception of 
them to him whose understanding is dark- 
ened. The reason, which the Apostle 
gives, is simply because they must be spiritu. 
ally discerned; consequently, till that spirit- 
ual discernnlent be communicated, heaven.. 
ly ,visdom 'lllust and will appear foolishness 
in his eyes. "Let us then," as we are \vell 

xhorted by the Church in one of her homi.. 
1ies ; " Let us meekly call upon the boun.. 
tiful Spirit, the I-Ioly Ghost, to inspire us 
\vith his presence, that ,ve may be able to 
hear the goodness of God to our salvation. 
For without his lively inspiration ,ve can- 
not so much as speak the name of the 
fe- 
diator. No man can say, that Jesus is the 
Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. l\iuch less 
lìhould we be able to understand these great 
ßlysteries, that be opened to us by Christ. 
For we hd-ce received, saith St. Paul, not the 
spil,;t of the '{t'orld, but the Spirit wltielt i$ 
'!f God, for this purpose, tflat u'e may kno
 



14 


the things ,{t'hic/t areLfreely gh:en to U,'j of Goa 
In the power of the Holy Ghost rcsteth an 
ability to kno,v God, and to please hin1. It 
is he, that purifieth the nlÏnd by his secret 
\vorking. He enlighteneth the heart to con- 
ceive ,vorthy thoughts of Ahnighty God.". 


A ,york of Cicero, \vritten expressly upon 
the nature of the gods, has heen providen- 
tialIy handed down to us; and it affords the 
most striking comlnent possible on the 
scriptural doctrine of tile ignorance of man. 
This great philosopher has shown at large, 
to the entire satisfaction of every Christian 
reader, how total1y blind the three most 
celebrated sects of antiquity \vere in an 
those points which are placed beyond the 
cognizance of sense. "Tith a n1Ìnd aJive 
to a11 the beauties of composition, and 
versed in all the researches of philosophy; 


I[ H6mil. for Rogat. 'Veek. Part iii. 



15 


,vith abilities rarely equalled, perhaps 
never exceUed; the Ronlan orator ventures 
to soar beyond the bounds of the material 
creation, and to scrutinize the nature of 
the Omnipotent. Ho,v are the mighty fal- 
len ! The grossest ignorance, and the 
strangest errors, are the principal character- 
istics of his celebrated treatise. Once, in- 
deed, a consciousness of hUInan inability 
extorts froin hilu a confession, that no man 
ever becanle great ,vithout some divine in- 
spiration;1 but, scarcely has this nlemorable 
selltiInent flowed froln his pen, ere. the doc- 
trine - of an universal providence ]8 ex- 
pressly denied by the advocate of one of 
the contending sects. a 


I " N emo igitur vir magnus sine aliquo adflatu divino 
umquam fuit." Cicero de Nat. Deor. I. ii. c. 66. 


.. "Magna D1 curant, parva negligunt." Ibid. See 
also Tusc. Quæs. 1. iii. in init.-Plat. Apol. Socrat. sect. 
IS.-Plat. Phæd. sect. 35.-Max. Tyr. Dissert.22.- 

tob. Excerpt. de mor. Tit. 1. 



, 


16 


Such was the wisdom of the philoso. 
phers; and thus was their unde'rstanding 
darkened, being alienated from the life of 
God through the 'ignorance that was ill 
them, because cif the blindness of their 
heart. 1 


II. Let the '{
:ill next be brought to the 
tcst, and \ve shall find it no less deficient 
than the understanding. 


OUf inclinations, resolutely bent upon 
earthly and sensual enjoyments, revolt from 
every thing divine and spiritual; insomuch 
, 
that even a heathen moralist could fe
l and 
acknowledge their depravation: 


t 
o pronæ in terras animæ, et cælestium inanes ! 


Hence though \ve are commanded to 'Work 
out our own salvation with fear and tl'emb. 


I Ephei. i.. 18. 



17 


ling; yet we are infol'lued at the saIne tin1e, 
that it is God that worketlt in us both fo will 
and to do o.f his good pleasure. r God 1I1Ust 
first give us the ,vilJ, and aftenvards the 
po\ver; otherwise 'we shaH for ever remain 
in a state of spiritual insufficiency. Our 
Lord himself, in perfect hannon y \vi th his 
inspired Apostle, declares expressly; No 
man can come to me, except the Father, 
which hath sent lne, draw-him.2. lIe speaks 
of us also as being naturally in a state of 
bondage, . instead of enjoying the high pre- 
rogative of freedom: !/e shall know the 
truth, and the truth shall make .you 11'ee.J 
This plain declaration gave high offence to 
the Jews; but Christ, so far from retracting 
it, asserted, that all those, who conlmit sin 
(and what lnan is inlpeccable?) are the 
servants of sin. To that blessed persoll 
alone we must look for .our cluancipation : 


I Philip. ü. 13. 



 John vi. 44. 


3 John "iii. 32. 


B 



18 


I}' the Son shall make YOlt free, yt shall b 
free indeed. 1 


Upon these so1id' scrj ptural grounds, tIlt 
Church of England rightly decides, that 
" the condition of ll1an after the fall of 
Adanl is such, that he cannot turn and pre.. 
pare hilDself, by his own natural strength 
and good works, to faith and calling upon 
God: wherefore ,ve have no po,ver to do 
good ,yorks plea
ant and acceptable to 
God without the grace of God by Christ 
preventing us, that we 111ay have a good 
,viU, and \vorking ,vith us \vhen 'we have 
that good ,vill.'''' Agreeably to such prin- 
ciples one of the prayers in her Liturgy is 
constructed. "Though we be tied and 
bound ,vith the chain of our sins, yet let 
the pitifulness of thy great mercy loose 
us.'" And the very same doctrine is taught 
in the second part of her I-Iomily on th.... 


I John viii. S6. 



 Art. 10. 



19 


rnisery of 'Inan. "Thus we have heard 
ho\v evil ,ve be of ourselves; ho\v of our- 
selves and by ourselves ,ve have no good- 
ness, help, or salvation, but contrarhvise 
sin, danlnation, and death everlasting: 
,vhich if we duly ,veigh and consider, ,ve 
shall the better understand the great 11lercy 
of God, and ho\v our salvation cOllleth 
only by Christ: for in ourselve3, as of our- 
selves, \ve find nothing ,vhereby we may be 
delivered froln this miserable captivity, 
into the which \ve are cast through the envy 
Qf the d
vil, by breaking of God's conl- 
nlandment in our first parent Adan1. 'Ve 
are all become unclean, but ,ve all arc not 
able to cleanse ourselves, nor nJake one 
another of us clean. 'Ve are by nature 
the children of God's wrath, but are not 

ble to nlake ourselves the children and in- 
heritors of God's glory. 'Ve are sheep 
that run astray, but ,ve cannot of our own 
po" er come agaIn to the sheep-fold; so 



20 


great is our ilnperfection and weakness.'}' 


III. 'Ve have hitherto considered the de- 
pravation of the understanding and the dis- 
tortiun of the 'l1;ill, in consequence of the 
faU of A(l<un; Jet us next take a vie\v ofïhe 
heart and the a.ttections. 


1. 'fhe passions of Io\'e and hatred do 
not appear to have been so lTIuch destroy- 
ed, as perverted, at the tiu)e of the fall. 
'Vhen Blan can)e pure and perfect frolll the 
hands of his l\laker, the passions ,verc di- 
rected to their proper objects. God, and 
hoIiness, were loved; sín, and irnpurity, 
\vere hated. But, after our first parents 


J The main hinge of the ancient controversies between 
Augustine and Pelagius, and between Luther and the Pa- 
pists, turned upon the doctrine of human sufficiency and the 
meritorious dignity of good works. An epistle of the 
African council, at which Aurelius of Carthage presided, to 
Innocent, Bishop of Rome, briefl
' states the heads of this 
contested subject. See August. Epist. go and 4û.- 
Luther. Enarrat. Pol. 6. c.-)1:elanct. l..oe, Theol. 
p. B9. 



21 


llad yielded to the tenl ptations of Satan, 
an almost total inversion of the fOfrner 
affections of the heart took place. Man 
then began to hate what he ought to love, 
and to love what he ought to hate. The 
pure and holy Ja\v of God, which thwarts 
his vicious inclinations, became the o
ject 
of his fiercest aversion; while, on the con- 
trary, ,vickedness becalne his pleasure and 
delight. 1 'rhe gecond of these propensities is 


J " Grace aoth not pluck up by the roots and whoHy 
destroy the natural passions of the mind, because they are 
distempered by sin; that were an extreme remedy to cure 
by killing, and heal by cutting off: no, but it corrects the 
distemper in them; it dries not up this main stream of 
love, but purifies it from the mud it is full of in its wrong 
course, or calls it to its right channel by which it mny run 
into happiness, and empty itself into the ocean of good- 
ness. The Holy Spirit turns the love of the soul to- 
wards God in Christ, for in that way only can it ap- 
prehend his love: so then, Jesus Christ is the first 
object of this divine love: he is medium uniollis, through 
whom God conveys the sense of his love to the soul, and 
receives back its love to him." Archb. Leighton's Com- 
m
nt. on ] Peter i. 8, n. 





 


ever active; the first not unfi.equentJy ap4 
pears for a season to lie dOrIllant. This 
lurking enmity towards God shunbered in 
the hearts of the J e\vs for son1e ages previous 
to the advent of the l\'lessiah;. but, when 
the spirituality of his preaching roused 
their consciences and showed them their 
inward abolninations, their enmity a\vokc, 
strong as death and cruel as the grave. 


This doctrine, ho"rever, is not unfre- 
quently denied even on the ground of per- 
sonal experience; and those, ,vho urge it, 
are thought to paint hun1an nature in much 
blacker colours than she r
aIJy deserves. 
It may perhaps be aI1owed, that ,ve haye 
frailties, venial frailties; but our nature is 
assertéd to be in the main ever favourable 
to virtue, and averse to vice. 


'The degree of truth, ,vhich such notions 
possess, is best ascertained by simple mat- 



is 


ter of fact. In the person of our b1essed 
Saviour virtue itseU ,vas embodied. Per- 
feedy just, and absolutely free fron1 cyen 
the slightest suspicion of criminality, 
Christ \vas the bright exemplar of the doc- 
trines ,vhich he preached. If the loye of 
virtue then be inherent in the hU111an n1ind, 
the Lord of life, condescending to visit the 
haunts of n1en, lllust surely have been the 
object of their ,vannest devotion and their 
most affectionate adoration. Yet ,vas he 
hated, reviled, and persecuted even to 
death, notwithstanding our supposed natu- 
ral propensity to virtue. In a sin1Ïlar 
manner his disciples, the labour of ,vhosc 
life consisted in imitating their divine Blas- 
ter, ,vere hated of all nations, as their Lord 
had expressly foretold: fOl' !tis nallIe's salce. 
In other ,vords, the Inore they approxilnat- 
ed to perfect virtue, the greater degree of 
odium they incurred. An a,vful instance 
, 


· blatt. xxiv. 9. 



24 


of the bitter enmity of the natural man 
against God and all his faithful servant.s is 
afforded us in the account of the death of 
St. Stephen. rrhe judges, "d10 presided in 
the Inoek trial uf the l)rotonlartyr, even 
gnashed 011 hint with their teetlt ;1 the violent 
,vorkings of rage in their hearts causing 
them to reselnble \vild beasts rather t.han 
Inen: nor could their aninlosity be quench.. 
ed except in the blood of their devoted 
victÍIn. 


Should it be said, that these are particu- 
lar i.1stances selected only froIn the history 
of a single nation, let us cast our eyes 
around and contemplate the labours of the 
great Apostle of the Gcntiles. "VVhence was 
it that bonds and afflictions a\vaited him in 
eyery city? 'Vhence, but because the holi- 
ness of his life, and the vehelnence of his 
eloq uence, held up a Inirror before the eyes 
of Inen, which too faithfuIly refl
cteJ their 


I Acts vii. 54. 



25 


luanifold iniquities? To approach nearer to 
our own times: what was it, that called 
down the fury of Popery upon the martyrs 
of the Protestant Church? 'fhe same prin- 
ci pIe, which crucified the Lord of life and 
persecuted his Apostles, consigned to the 
flames a Crannler, a Latimer, and a Ridley. 
Now, this repeated opposition to the truth 
can only be accounted tor upon the scrip- 
tural doctrine, that the carnal 'llzind is 
ennÛty 'le'itlt God.' lIe, who searcheth the 
"cry heart and the reins, hath declared, 
that light is come into the 'world, and men 
loved dal.kncss rather than light, because 
their deeds are e1:il. Fo?' everyone t"at 
doetlt evil, hatetlt tlte light, neither cometh to 
the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. & 


The fact is, men are apt to deceive them- 
selves into a belief, that their minds are not 
at enmity ,vith God, by the còmn10n delu- 
SIon of performing their duty only by 


I Rom. viii. 9. 



 .John iii. 19. 



26 


halves. Different persons are so differentl) 
constituted, that duties are more or less 
irksonle to thein, exactly in the proportion 
that they more or less coincide ,vith their 
natural dispositions. Hence, each indivi- 
àual selects the duty \vhich best suits his 
inclinations, and seems almost to forget that 
any others are in existence. The Pharisee5 
preserved a very decent exterior, and were 
strict observers of the iiteral part of the 
La,v. Perfectly satisfied \vith their imagi- 
nary progress in holiness, they placidly 
reclined on the pillo,v of self-righteousness, 
and felt not the hidden malignity of their 
nature. 'Vhat they performed \vere un- 
doubtedly duties; but they \vere duties, 
,vhich in tllei1' situation required no great 
degree of self-denial. The moment an 
a,vakened conscience forced thenl to ac- 
knowledge that exertions of a Inuch higher 
nature \vere necessary to gain the favour of 
heaven, the mask of sanctified hypocrisy 
'vas dropped, their hatred to God blaied 



27 


out in its fun fury, and a deliberate judi.. 
cial rnurder of the discloser of such dis- 
agreeable truths ,vas the result. 


'Ve are sOlnetinlCs apt cOlTIplacentIy to 
thank God, that we are not like the Phari- 
sees; but, ,vould we candidly exarnine our 
OWll hearts, u"e lHight possibly find that 
they contain the very san)e evil disposition 
in enlbryo. To a man of an active telnper, 
a life full of elnploYlnent is the highest 
source of gratification. Hence, if he have 
received some religious impressions, he feels 
bu t little repugnance to diverting his acti- 
vity into a different channel from ,vhat it 
flowed in before. The saIne disposition 
remains, though the object ,vhich engage
 
his attention and rouses the vigour of his 
mind, be no,v no longer the sanle. In the 
discharge of actil'e religious duties, he per- 
ceives not the enmity of a corrupt heart 
against God, because from nlcre physical 
reasons he fec]s no repugnance against 



28 


them. But if he be called upon to analyse 
the hidden cause of his actions, and to give 
up part of his tinle to serious 111editation; 
if he be required daily to deny himself, 
and no longer to participate in those vani- 
ties which are usuaHy peculiarly gratifying 
to ardent and sanguine tenlpers: if such 
requisitions as these be Dlade, then com- 
mences the struggle; and we too frequently 
behold those, ,vho are foremost in every 
active duty, shrink with disgust from the 
resignation of worldly pleasure. 


On the other hand, 111en of indolent and 
phlegmatic dispositions ,vould never per- 
ceive their enmity towards God, 'v ere 
Christianity a mere negative. system of 
quietisln. Persons of this description, who 
begin to feel the importance of religion, 
will hear with equal cOlnplacency a ,varm 
exhortation to the duties of the closet, and 
a. vehement relnonstrance against dissipa- 
tion. They forthwith give themselve5 up 




9 


to prayer and devout meditation; they read 
the Scriptures daily; and they steadily 
resolve never more to frequent the haunts 
of vanity and fol1y. All this they perform 
,vithout any difficulty; and therefore con- 
clude, that their inclinations are perfectly 
in unison with the ,vill of God, and that 
they have arrived at a considerable degree 
of eminence in the school of Christianity. 
But what are their pretensions to superior 
piety, if they be closely scrutinized? They 
diligently perfornl those duties, to which 
silnply frolll their natural constitution 
they have no repugnance; and resolutely 
deny thenlselvcs all those fashionable follies, 
for which they previously entertained the 
most profound indifference. In such a state 
of lllind let a course of active duty be urged 
upon them, and they will be effectually 
convinced of their natural hatred to the 
Law of God. Men are very ready to obey, 
so far as obedience is not entirely inconsis- 
tent with their inclinations; hence the opn- 



30 


lent win ncycr take oflènce at the clergyman 
"rho happens to preach a cOllcio ad poplllu1Jl.. 
against theft, nor the populace at hiIll ,vho 
\ - 
censures the vices of their superiors.! But,. 
if he faithfuJlJ ten both parties their faults; 
jf he force his reluctant congregation to 
take a survey of thcir in\\rard corruptions; 
and if he declare, that no man can enter 
into the kingdolu of heayen unless a COll1- 
I)lete and radical change take place in his 
heart: he ,viII find nOllC satisfied with him 
but those, who are resolved to make the 
service of God the Inain business of their 
Jives. In a Sill1ilar Inanner, if be assure 
such of his flock as lllake a great outward 


· I have some" here seen a story of Doctor J olmsol1;ø 
,,'hich may serve not inapposite]y to exemplifJ this remark; 
though I hy no means think the Doctor's implied censure 
.- 
of his motber just. lC I remember," sairl he to 011f' of his 
fl'ienùs, "" hen I, was a child, tbat my mother, hy way 
of spending a Sunday evening profitably, made me read 
to her a chapter from Tlte TVhole Dut!l oj" JJlan against 
stealing: the truth of the doctrine was undeniable" but I 
felt no inclination to be a thief." 



Jl 


profession of religion, that a vehem
nt zeal 
fen certain particular doctrines, a staunch 
adherence to party, a never-ceasing eager- 
ness to discuss theological topics, an in- 
temperate thirst of hearing sern10ns, and 
a too exclusive partiality for fa;ol1rit
 
preachers, are no certain rnarks of grace; 
if he soleulnly ,varn thenl, that the doers, 
not the hearers of God's word, are treading 
the path which leads to heaven 
 and if he 
ren1ind thenl, that the shibboleth. of a sect 
is by no means an evidence of real Chris- 
tianity: it is far from improbable, that his 
plain-dealing ,vill be very in received. So 
long as he prophesies 81nooth things, and 
accommodates hiulself to the humour of his 
congregation, whateycr that humour may 
be, just so long they ,viII speak well of him; 
but, let hil1l put forth his hand, and tOllcil, 
tlleÙ' bone and their flesh, and the!} will curse 
him to his face. 1 


J Job ii. 5. 



'" 


3
 


"Vhat has been said is anlply sufficient to 
prove, that the carnal nlind is enn1ity with 
God. If any person still doubt it, Jet hilll but 
vigorously apply hin1'5elf to those allowed 
duties ,vhich are most irksome to him, and 
he. win quickly find an argunlent in his own 
breast, infinitely stronger than any that 
have been here adduced. 


2. Closely connected ,vith the bitter ani- 
llwsit!J \vhich the heart entertains against 
God (connected indeed ,vith it in the way 
of cause and effect), is its cxtreme depravity. 
Theological ,vriters have not unfrequently 


I "Quid aliud iUll1undo quam pugna adversus diabohnu 
quotidie geritur; quam adversus jacula ejus et tela COll- 
flictatiollibus assiduis dimicatur? Cum avaritia nobis, cum 
impudicitia, cum ira, cum ambitione, congressio est 
 cum 
carnalibus vitiis, cum illecebris secularibus, assidua et 
molesta luctatio est. Obsessa mens hominis, et undif!ue 
diaboli infestatione vaJIata, vix occurrit singulis, vix iesis- 
tit. Si avaritia prostrata est, exsurgit libido: si libido 
compressa est, succedit ambitio: si ambitio contemta est, 
ira "exasperat, inflat superbia, vinolcntia invitat, invidia 
concordiam rumpit, amicitiam zelus abscinrlit." Cypri3n. 
de Mortal. 



33 


been accused of exaggeration in treating of 
the depra,'ity in question: but the con- 
science of everyone, ,vhose understanding 
. 
has been enlightened ,vith self-knowledge, 
,vill readily acquit thelu of the charge. 
" Since the faU, the nature of 111an has been 
blind and corrupt; his understanding 
darkened, and his affections poUuted. 
Upon the face of the ,vhole earth there is 
no man, J e\v or Gentile, that understand- 
eth and seeketh after God. The natural 
luan, or man remaInIng in that state 
,vherein the fall left him, 1S so far from 
being able to discover 01' know any reli.. 
gious truth, that he hates and flies from it 
,vhen it is proposed to hirn: he 1'eceivttlt 
not tlte things oj' tlte Spirit if God. Man 
is natural and earthly; the things of God 
are spiritual and heavenly; and these are 
contrary one to the other: therefore, as 
the wisdom of this world is foolishness with 
God, so the wisdom of God is foolishness 
with the world. In a word, the sense man 
C 



34 


IS now possessed of, where God does not 
restrain Ü, is used for evil and not for 
good; his wisdom is earthly, sensual, devi- 
)jsh: it is the sagacity of a brute, aninlated 
by the n]alignity of an evil spirit." I 


s. In addition to its enmity against God 
and its utter depravity, the hUlnan heart is 
likewise in a state of insensibility and stupi- 
dity. The conscience, as the Apostle ex- 
presses it, is past feeling, seared as with a 
hot Ù'ou.1. Hence reproofs and judgments 
nlay irritate, but can never merely by their 
own influence convert. 1'his insensibilitJ, 
though it may be increased by a habit of 
sinning, is yet itself originally inherent in 
the conscience: at the first, it is not so 
IDuch superinduced upon it, as it springs out 
of it. 


IV. 
Ian being thus depraved in the U'll- 


J Jones's Cathal. Doctrine of the T1'inity, p. 14. 
2. Epbes. iv. 19. 1 Tim. iv. 2. 



35 


derstunding, the u:ill, and the a..tJectiolls, it 
is ahnost superfluous to obser\?e, that he 
nlust in consequence have lost a1l power of 
serving (;od. Unable to disco\'er his will, 
hating it when it is discovered to him, and 
so polluted by sin that he is utterly unable 
to cleanse himself, how can he perform in 
his own strength any acceptable service? 
He may indeed, in the pride of his high 
speculations, i1nagine himself to he rich, 
and to have need if' /lothing; but the ,vord 
of God win inforn1 hinl, that he is wretch- 
ed, and miserable, and poor', and blind, and 
naked. 1 Even those actions of the natural 
Inan, which bear the selnhlance of good; 
the patriotisnl of a Regulus, and the 1110- 
rality of a Socrates; even they are but 
splendid sins:" for, as we are rightly taught 
by the Church, "'V orks, done before the 


I Revel. iii. 17. 
" See Bp. Beveridge's Exposition of the AI tides. 
Art. xiii. 



t') 6 

 


glace of Christ anù the inspiration of his - 
spirit, arc not pleasant to God, forasmuch 
as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ: 
-yea rather, for that they are not done as 
God hath \villed and cOlllmanded them to 
be done, u'e doubt not but they have the 
nature of sin."I 'The reason of this is ob... 
vious: a polluted heart can no more bring 
forth a good action, than a polluted foun- 
tain can eU1it pure ,vater: but all our 
hearts are by nature impure: consequentJy 
all our actions before the reception of di- 
vine grace nlust be inlpure also, and ai 
such cannot be pleasing unto God. 


In this luiserable condition is every man 
born. :Fallen from his high estate, and 
sunk in the deep sleep of presunlptuouS 
wickedness, he refuses to listen to tlte VOiCl; 


· Art. xiii. See also Bp. Hopkius':) \Vorks, p. -5!l.'i, 
and Bp. Beveridge's Private Thoughts 1 Art. viii. 



37 


f)f any hun1an charmer', cllarlll lle et:cr so 
wisely. God alone is able to create a clean 
heart, and to renew a t'igltt spirit within 
hiln; for creation is an attribute belonging 
solely to the Deity. 1\lan Inust be brought 
back to the in1age of his !\Iaker, that image 
,vhich ,vas lost by the faU of Adam; or he 
must for ever relnain excluded from the 
kingdom of heaven. 


- F!-om the mercy-seat above 
Prevenient grace descending must remove 
The stony from his heart, and make new flesh 
R{'
enerate grow instead 



CHAPTElt II. 


. - - 


The illumination if tlte understanding through tlie 
irifluence f!f the Holy Spirit, the first w01 1 k of 
gl'ace in the human soul. 


... - .. 


WHEN the Alnlighty created man, he fore- 
sawall the fatal consequences ,vhich would 
result from his violation of the divine COlTI- 
mandment. 'rhough justice required the 
punishn1ent of the transgressors, yet mercy 
provided a wonderful ren1edy, by yirtue of 
,vhich Adam and all his posterity might 
have the means of escaping eternal perdi- 
tion. The fulness of tin1e being COlne, the 
only begotten of the Father; " God of 
God, Light of Light, yery God of very 



39 


God;" the Lalnb virtua]]y and typically 
slain fÌ'om the foundation of the ,,,"arId; 
this glorious personage took our nature 
upon l1im, and was 'Inade like U1ltO us ill all 
tllings, sin only excepted. .l\fter spending a 
life of un wearied benevolence and hea venl y 
purity, honouring the Law 1110re highly by 
his perfect observance of it than it ,vas ever 
dishonoured by the transgressions of the 
whole race of Inan, our Lord closed his 
n1Ìnisterial labours by offering himself up, 
a voluntary self-devoted sacrifice, for the 
sins of the world. 'fhe benefits of his death 
and passion extended. as widely ag the 
baneful effects of the fall had done;1 and 
we are repeatedly told by the inspired 
wri tel's, that he suffered for the sins of all 
men.& None are excluded froln being par- 
takers of these blessings. Every contrite 
sinner, every soul that wishes for salvation, 


J 1 Corio. xv. 22. 

 Heb. ii. 9. Coloss. i. 20. 1 Tim. ii. 4. 6. 



40 


IS freely invited to approach to the throne 
of mercy, assured of a ,velcollle reception 
throu-gh the aU-sufficient lllerits of the Re- 
deen1cr. 110, everyone that tllÏrstetlt, come 
ye to the waters, and he that /latlz no 1noney ; 
come ye, buy, and eat; yea, C01Jie, buy l1lÏllt 
and z;.'ine '{
'itlwut 1JlOney and without price! J 


But, although the redenlption of mankind 
be thus unlimited and universal, and al- 
t.hough God willeth not the death of any 
sinner, but rather that all should turn unto 
bin1 and repent; yet, by reason of the 
obstinate foIl y of the wicked, the gra- 
CIOUS purposes of the Alnlighty faU 
to produce universal salvation. All day 
long, saith the Lord, have I stretched fortlt 
1ny hand.s unto a disobedient and gainsaying 
people." Entel' ye in, saith our Saviour, at 
the strait gate; fo'" wide is the gate and 
broad is tIle way t!tat leadeth to destruction, 


· Isaiah Iv. 1. 


7. Rom. x. 21. 



41 


end many there be which go ill thereat: be. 
,calise strait is tlte gate and narrow is the u
ay 
which /t'adeth unto life, and few there be 
that find it. 1 Hence it is evident, that 
many unhappy persons, \vhom t.he god of 
this ,,'odd hath blinded, will either ex- 
pressly reject, or carelessly neglect to avail 
themselves of, the benefits of Christ's death 
and passion. All those, who are infatuated 
,vith the pride of infidelity, and madly defy 
the living God, exclude thenlse1ves with a 
high hand from the pale of the Church: 
and all those, ,vho, like the dc\rjJs, believe 
and trenlble; \vho acknowledge the divine 
authority of the Gospel, but are strangers 
to its influence; who ]i\-e, to use the enl- 
phatic ,vords of Scri pture, 'l;.:itltoul God ill, 
the w01'ÜI, dead in trespasses and sins; all 
these, if there be any truth in the plain de- 
clarations of our Lord and his l\postIes, 
have no Jot nor portion in the Son of God. 


· l\latt. vii. 13. 



4
 


How happens it then, that some recei,'e 
the. \vo"d with joy, and 
 bring forth fi'uit 
meet for repentance; while others either 
sullenly reject it, or renlain alike uniflflu- 
enced by its threats and its promises? No 
'In a 11, saith our blessed Lord, can come unto 
'file, cxcept the }'ather, 'lfhicll hath sent 1n
, 
draw him.' But in what n1anner doth the 
Father draw ll1allkind unto hin1self, In 
order that they may not perish, but re- 
ceive everlasting life? The Apostle informs 
us, that no man call say thai J eSllS is tli
 
Lord, but by the Holy Ghost." 


I t is therefore the peculiar office of the 
third person of the Trinity to bring us 
nto 
Christ, and to i nd uce us to accept the par- 
don ,vhich is freely offered unto all. IIere 
,ve see, that none can come unto Christ 
,vithout being dra
vn by the gracIous In.. 
fluence of the Spirit. 


I John vi. 44. 



 ] Corin. xii. 3. 



43 


But many resist that influence t
 their 
.own destruction:. in a manner cOlnpelling 
God to declare, that his Spirit shall not 
allf'uys 
tl'i've 'If:ith lnan; I and forcing the 
l11erciful Saviour hilllSeJf to complain, ye 
jtill nut come unto me that ye may have life. 
 
I-Iere we learn tbe true reason, why so many 
perish in their sins: they will not accept 
he salvation, \vhich is offered to them in 
c
nllnon ,vith aU lllankind. God thè Spirit 
dr
wcth then1 indeed: but they obstinately 
refuse to follow hiul. J 


I Gen. vi. 3. 



 John v. 40. 


3 I have endeavoured to state this difficult point in that 
manner, \vhich to myself, at least, appears the most agree- 
able to Scripture. \Vith the Calviui:;tÏc view Jf the sub- 
--.. 
ject I am hy no mcang satisfied: but the Pelagian view of 
it is y
t mçre exceptiollaLle. 
It is certain, that the free-will (that is, of course the 
mOTul, not the naturul, free-will) \\ hich Adam possessed 
in his state of. purity, ,vas i'1St at the faU, when he and aU 
his postenty beCal11e indil' to ev;l; hence, as we are 
instrltctcd þy the Cl
ulch, (( \.h
 condition of man after the 



44 


...\ considerable degree of prudence and 
caution is necessary in treating of the ope- 


faIl of Adam is such; that he cannot turn and prepare 
himself by his own natural btrength and good works to 
faith and calling upon God:" nevertheless it is no-where 
asserted in Scripture, that freedom of will is not equally 
restored unto all men by the preaching of the Gospel. 
Every expostulation of God with the wicked necessarilg 
supposes, that he frèely gives them an opportunity of re. 
pentance; and that their eternal condemnation is the re. 
suIt, 110t of all arbitrary decree, but of their deliberatel!! 
choosing evil rather than good, and their obstinately re- 
fusillg the assi
tance of the lloly Ghost, which is equalIy 
offered unto all men. 
I am aware, that in reply a Calvinist will argue; ct If 
till have free-will equally given to them by the Spirit, if 
all are equally drawn by the Father, all must equaII}. 
eome unto Christ." 
Tbis, however, by no means follows, as we may suffi- 
ciently learn from the faU of our first parent. Adam pos- 

esscd free-will by nature; and, without having the slight- 
est bias to evil, was strongly drawn or inclined by the 
Spirit of God to that which is good: Jet Adam felI. \"hy 
then may not those, to whom the free-will lost by the 
tran
gression of Adam has been restored on the offer of 



45 


rations of the Holy Ghost; and the two 
extrcnlCS of enthusiaSlTI and profanenes
 
should be eq uaU y ayoided. 


pardon by the Gospel, fall likewise 
 Persons, placed 
under such circumstances, and urged by the secret infll1. 
ence of the Holy Ghost to flee from the wrath to come, 
can scarcely be thought more highly fa\'oured than Adam 
wa5 previous to his transgression: it is not very easy there.. 
{ore to say', why they may not abuse free-will 'ldtf1l re 9 
co
'eTed, just as much as Adam did '{oheri possessed of it 
ab origille; amI wIlY th
y may not neglect to use imparted 

lleTlgth, just as much as Adam did the strellgth 'li.:úi.ch, lut 
received at Ids creation. If Adam had been drawll to a 
due performance of his duty by an irresi$tible impulse of 
the SpiJ it, it is manifest that he never could have fa}len : 
1 am not aware that we are warranted by Scripture to sup" 
pose, that the Holy Ghost acts upon our wills in an>' dif- 
ferent manner from what he did upon Adam's. I
 is 01lf 
thing to believe, that no man can come unto Christ unles
 
he be drawn by t
e Father through the agency of the 
Spirit; and qui
e another to maintain, that e,'ery person, 
who is thus drawn, must necessarily and iTlevitably obey 
that impulse. The denial of the first of these proposi- 
- Ûous constitute., the heresy of the Pelagians ;, the assertiui 



46 


Persons of a sanguine temperaillent have 
not unfrequently been so far deluded by a 
mischievous fanaticis111, as to mistake the 
,vorkings of a heated imagination for the 
immediate dictates of heaven. lIenee they 
have been sometinles led to undervalue 
even the sacred ,vord of God, and to fancy 
that they are actually taught by inspiration 
without Inaking any use of the nleans ,vhich 
the Almighty has been pleased to appoint. 
The consequence of such crude and un- 
scriptural notions is sufficiently evident: 
the unhappy victims of this fatal delusion 


of the second, the error of the Calvinists. Because Scrip- 
ture 3ppeals to us as free and reasonable beings, the for- 
mer very rashly suppose, that we stand in no need of di- 
vine grace; because Scripture declares, that of ourselves 
we can neither will nor do that which is good, the latter 
too hastily conclude, that the influence of the Spirit is 
absolutely irresistible. But L desist from pressing the 
matter any further: the object of the present treatise is 
not controversy. 



47 


fall from one absurdity into another, the 
sport of every wind of doctrine, and the 
pity of all sober-Ininded Christians. 'The 
error, to which I allude, consists in mis- 
taking the e.xtraordinarlJ for the ordinary 
operations of the Spirit. 'Ve are not in the 
present day to expect any 1JeW revelations: 
that point has been sufficiently deciJed by 
St. Paul. Though u'e or an angel from 
heat'en, says he, preach any other Gospel 
unto you than that røhich (t'e have preached 
. unto you, let hiln be accursed. 1 'fhe office 
of the Holy Ghost is not to reveal any ad- 
ditional doctrines to us; but to enable us to 
understand spiritually those ,vhich have 
been already revealed. Accordingly, the 
Berèans are conlmended as being more no- 
ble than the Thessalonians, not only be- 
cause they reaJily received the ,vord, but 
because they likewise searched the Scriptu.res 


Galat. i. 8. 



4$ 


daily whether those things røere so! God 
 
I-Ioly Spirit doubtless both prevented and 
seconded their pious endeayours, illun1Ïna.. 
ting their n1Ïnds, and filling them ,vith an 
heavenly wisdolu; for 1-ve are informed, 
that n1any of then} believed: but at the 
san1e tiIl1e it is signitìed to us, that the et
'- 
ternal cause was their diligent attention to 
the Scriptures.
 In a silnilar l11anner, al- 
though the Church directs her children to 
pray unto God for his inspiration/ it is 
only that they may be enabled to think 
those things that be good, and that their 
hearts rnay be cleansed fron1 aU iU1purity ; 
not that they may becon1e prophets or 
apostles. Long has the extraordinary influ.. 


· Acts xvii. 11. 
2. I( They _ searched the Scriptures daily, wllether 
those things were so; therifore many of them bc!ieved." 
Acts xvii. 11, 1 Q. 
3 Collects for the 5th Sun. after East. and Communion 


Service. 



49 


ence of the Spirit ceased, and ,ve are autho- 
rised by our blessed Lord hilnself to con- 
siùer all pretensions to it in these latter days 
as the marks whereby ,ve nlay assuredly 
detect ilnpostors. 1 One of the main artifices 
of Satan is to propagate error by issuing, as 
it were, base counterfeits of those scriptural 
doctrines which have received the statnp of 
God's own authority. As he persuades 
SOBle to sin in order that grace may abound, 
miscalling the impure speculations of .A.nti- 
n0111ianislll justification by faith; so lIe be- 
wilders others in the n1azes of enthusiasm, 
puffing theln up ,vith vain conceits, and 
distracting the peace of the Church, under 
the pretence that the wHd reveries of a mad 
fanatic are the immediate inspiration of 
hea\yen. 


I 
Iatt. xxiv. 11. Q3, '24, 25,26. 


D 


" 



50 


Persons of an opposite descri ption to 
_ those, '" hose inlagination outruns their 
judgnlent, terrified and disgusted ,,,ith th
 
perversion of the scriptural doctrine of 
divine influence, have too hastily plunged 
into the other extreme; and, though per- 
haps they Inay not absolutely have .denied 
the existence of the I-Iol.v Ghost, yet they 
., 
scarcely allow him any share in the great 
'work of our conversion. Our Lord indeed 
conlpares the operations of the spirit to the 
,dud, and we can no more discern the one 
than the other: ne'Tertheless, if ,ve have 
received the lIoly Ghost, our souls 111ust 
be as sensible of his influence by its benefi- 
cial effects, as our bodies are of the inlpulse 
of the air when in Inotion. Unless this be 
allowed, it is not very easy to say <i'hat we 
are io understand hy sn

h a cOlllparison. 
'Vhen a t()tal change takes place in a lnan's 
soul, a change so great that it is caned in 
Scripture a passage from d(trkness into light, 



51 


from extinction to anilnation: it is utter]y 
impossible that it should not be perceived. s 
This change consists in an illumination of 
the understanding, a restoration 0/' the free- 


I 1 John ii. 8. Ephes. i. ] 8. Ibid. ii. 1. 5. 

 
'There must be a revolution of p1'illciple: the visible 
conduct will follow the change: but there must be a re- 
volution ,"-,it/till. A change so entire, so deep, so impor- 
tant, as this, I do allow to be a conversion; and no one, 
who is in the situation above described, can be saved 
witbout undergoing it; and he must necessarily both be 
:sensible of it at the time, alld remember it all his life af- 
terwards. It is too momentous an event ever to be forgot. 
A man might as easily forget his escape from a shipwreck. 
'Vhether it was sudden, or whether it was gradual, if it 
was effected (and the fruits of it will prove that), it was a 
true conversion: and every such person may jnstly both 
believe and say it himself, that be was converted at a par.. 
ticular as
ignable time. It may not be necessary to speak 
of his conversion, but he will always think of it with un- 
bounded thankfulness to the giver of all grace." Paley's 
Sermons" Serm, vii. 



52 


dont of the tt'ill, and a 1'egulation of tht. af- 
fections. 


'The first thing necessary towards our bc- 
cOIning children of God is the illumination 
of the understanding. The IIoly Gho
t 
must shine into the dark recesses of our 
hearts anù grant us a spiritual discernment, 
or the ,vorù of God ,viII for ever remain a 
sealed book. ,r e may inde
d conl prehend 
the literal and granlnlatical construction of 
the sentences, but we shaH derive no more 
saving knowledge from it than the Jews 
did froin the la,v when they crucified 
the Lord of life. The mere exertions of 
unassisted reason can never convey to our 
:minds any knowledge of the things of God, 
because they l11ust be spiritua1Jy discerned. 
l\Iuch has already been said upon this sub. 
jeet, when the spiritual deficiency of our 
understandings was considered. \Ve all 
know that they are not defcctive in COU1.. 



53 


prehending the bare letter of Scripture any 
1110re than that of I-Iomer or Virgil; in 
,vhat then are they defecti\'e, unless it be 
in spiritual discernm
nt ? This ,viII alone 
account for the language of St. Paul, ,vhen 
he assures the Ephesians, that he ceases 
not to offer up his praj'ers, that tlte God of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, 
llzight give unto thelll the Spirit of wisd01n 
and 'j'e'Celat ion in tlte ltnou'Zedge of hÍ1n,o the 
('yes of theil" understanding being enlighten- 
ed; tltat they 'Inighl know 'U'hat is tlte hope 
cif his calling, 
nd 'It."hat the 1'iclles of tI,e 
glory of his inheritance in the saints, and 
what is the e:Jxeedillg greatness of his powe," 
to us-ward who beliet:e, according to the 
'Working of his 'Jnighty power. I '-fhe Ephe- 


· In this passage, according to the usual manner of the 
sacred writers, spiritual things are exhibited to our com- 
prehension by their corresponding natural objects; and 



54 


Slans dou bt]ess possessed the faculty of 
common discernn1cnt; and yet the sanle 
Apostle prays that they might be able to 
c01nprehe1ld with all saints 'lchat is tIle breadth, 
and length, and depth and height; and to 
know tlte lore of Christ uhich passeth kno'lØ- 
ledge, that they 'lnight be filled 'with the ful.. 
?less 0./ God. I lIenee it appears that the 
Ephesians might read the Scripture ,vithout 
that comprehension of it, which the Apos.. 
tIe prays for on their behaIf. s 


tIle illumination of the Holy Spirit is compared to opening 
the eyes of the blind. 

 Ephes. iii. 18. 


'J. Euxo?J 
= fl'O, 7TpO 7rctIJTW'I <þWTO
 ctVo'X6))lIct. '1rt)Àcts. ou r

 
fl'VII07rTct ovae fl'UIIVO'JTct '1rctfl"V Efl'T'V, E' p."IJ T
 Beos ôrp fl'VV'EVC:U 
x
. Ó Xg'fl'TOS ctUTOV. Just. l\1art. Dial. cum TrJph. p. 173. 
U The first creature of God in the works of the days, 
was the light of the sense; the last was the light of reason; 
and his sabbath work ever since is the illumination of his 
spirit. First be breathed light upon the face of the matter 



55 


FrOIn thes
 remarks it is sufficiently evi- 
dent, that, although Christ died for the 


of chaos; then he breathed light upon the face of man; 
and still Lreakcth and inspireth light iuto the face of hi
 
chosen." Lord Bacon's Essay on Truth. 
"Absurd is the doctrine of the Socinian.
 and some 
(i)thers, that unregenerate men, by a mere natural percep- 
tion, without all!! divine sliperinfllsed light (they are th
 
words of Episcopius, and they are wicked words) may 
unde1"stalld tile 'ldlOle law, even all things requisite unto 
faith and godliness; foolishly confounding and impiously 
deriding the spiritual and divine sense of the IIoly Scrip- 
tures with the grammatical construction. Against this we 
shall need use no other argument than a plain syllogism 
compounded out of the words of Scripture: Da1"lmes! 
dotll not comprehend ligltt (John i. 5,); Unregenerate 
men are darkness (Ephes. v. 8. iv. 17, 18. Acts xxvi. IS. 
Q Pet. i. g.), yea, held under tlle power of darkness (Co!. 
i. 13.); and The word of God is light (Psalm cxix. 105. 
! Cor. iv. 4.) therefore unregencrate men cannot under- 
,r.:talld the 'It;ord in that spiritual compass '(cnidl it can'ics. 
-N atuml men have their principles vitiated, their faruI. 
tic') bound, that they cannot understand spiritual thing
, 



56 


sins of the whole ,,"orId, yet none will ever 
truly acknowledge hiln as their Lord ex- 
cept by the influen
e and operation of the 
blessed Spirit. Before he opens their eyes 


till God have, as it were, implanted a new understanding 
in them, framed the heart to attend, and set it at liberty to 
see the glory of God with open face. Though the veil do- 
not keep out grammatical construction, )et it blindeth the 
heart against the - spiritual light and beauty of the word." 
Bishop Reynolds's \V orks. p. 44. 
" Spiritus Parac1etus ilIum longe docet melius, quam 
universi libri: ut absolutius intelligat scripturam, quam 
explanari illi que at." .Luther. Ellarrat. F 01. 275. A. 
" Secundus gradus est donatio spiritus sanctÌ, qui novam 
lucem in mente, et novos motus in voluntate et corde, 
accendit; gubcrnat nos; et iuchoat in nobis vitam æter- 
nam." l\Ielanc. Loc. Theo!. p. 731. See also King 
Edward's Catechism in Bp. Randolph's Euchiridion, vol. 
i. p. 41.-Noel's Catechism, Ibid vol. ii. p. 132.-Bp. 
Beveridg:,'s Private Thoughts" Art. viii.-I3p. \Vilkins on 
Prayer, chap. xvii.-Bp. ReYllolds's \\7' orks, p. 305. 463. 
-Dr. Barrow's \Vorks, vul. iii. p. 5'29, 530, 531.--, 
Jones's Essay on .Man, Ch2p. iii. 



57 


to see wonderful things out of God's Law, 
they are as totaUy devoid of all spiritual 
understanding, as a bliud man is of the 
faculty of discerning luaterial objects. 
'fhese objects exist indeed; but, frOOl the 
deficiency of his organs of yision, thcy arc 
unable to n)ake any impression upon hi
 
n1ind. 


I-Ienee, as I ba,,'c already observed, tbc 
first step, ,vhich the HoJy Spirit takes in 
the 
onversion of a sinner, is to open tbe 
eyes of his understanding. 1 'VhiJe men 
. remaIn In a state of carnal security, th8 
sound of God's word passes by them as 


· (C The first work, which God puts forth upon the 
10uI, in order to its conversion, is, to raise up a spiritual 
light \vithin it, to clear up its apprehensions about spiritual 
matters, so as to enable the soul to look upon God as the 
chiefest good, and the el
o)"ment of him as the greatcit 
blial," Bp. Beveridge's Private Thouihts" Art. "iii. 



58 


little regarded as the ,vind. They have nu 
concpption of the spirituality of the La\y 
nor of the purity of God. Provided only a 
decent exterior be pre
erYed and the penal 
ßtatutes of the land be unviolated, the;' 
ilnagine that aU is perfectJy sat{-, and that 
it ,vould be equaHy absurd and uncharita- 
ble to doubt of the certainty of their salva- 
tion. In the Inean time they forget that 
God is a searcher of the heart, that he re- 
quires truth in the in ward parts, and that 
he is of purer eyes than to behold the least 
iniquity. 'rheir boasted morality is for the 
n10st part 111erely negative: it is rather an 
absence of the O\7ert acts of sin, than a 
presence of real holiness. Though they 
duly n1ake a ,veekly acknowledgrnent of 
their sinfulness in strict conformity ,vith the 
liturgy of the Church; yet they repeat the 
confession rather as ,vords of course, than 
as feeling the truth of it frol11 bitter expe- 
rience: and, though they punctua1J y re- 



59 


celve the sacrament "at the ]east three 
times in the year," and avo\v that" the 
relllcmbrance of thcir misdoings is grievous 
unto thelTI and the burden of them intolera- 
ble ;" yet, notwithstanding the strength of 
the language ,vhich they adopt, it is luuch 
to be questioned ,vhether they be reaUy 
sensible of the vast ,veight of sin. If pres.. 
sed closely upon this subject, they in\Taria- 
bly deny that depth of corruption, that 
Inystery of iniquity, by ,vhich every facul- 
ty of the hUlnan soul, every thought and 
'ford and deed of the very best man upon 
earth, is more or less poHuted and unclean. 
'fhey will probably acknowledge venial 
errors, pardonable fi'ailties, and trifling Jap- 
ses; but the doctrine, that man is yery far 
gone from original righteousness l that of 
his own nature he is inclined to evil, that 
he deserveth God's wrath and damnation, 
and that he is by nature a child of ,vrath, is 



60 


rejected by then1 ,vith all the angry feelings 
of a proud indignation. 1 


· It is no uncommon thing in the present day to hear 
various orthodox doctrines stigmatizcd as being Calâllis- 
tic, when in truth they are no more peculiar to Calvinism 
than to any other doctrinal system. Such has been th
 
fate of the tenet of o1'igiual sin. They, who deny it, 
find it much more convenient to term those.) who maintain 
it, Calvinists, than to abide b
 the plaiD and explicit de- 
cision of the Church in her 9th Article. All Calvinists dn 
indeed hold it; but it does 1I0t therefore follow, that an, 
who hold it, are Calvinist.s, any more than that all ':frini- 
tarians are Papists. "Our Articles," says Bishop Hors- 
ley, "affirm certain things, which we hold in common 
with the Calvinists: 80 they affirm certain things, which 
we hold in common with the Lutherans; and some things, 
wbich we bold in common with the Romanists. It can- 
not well be otherwise; for, as tbere are certain principles 
which are common to aU Protestants, so tbe essential ar- 
ticles of faith are common to all Christians." Horsley's 
Tracts, p. 398. Since this was written, his Lordship bas 
very judiciously advised those, who are eager to signalize 
their prowess against the doctrinal system of the Genevan 
reformer, first to learn wbat Calvinism is exclasi-cel!J; leit 



61 


Froln this utter ignorance of their o,vn 
corru ption, they ,vill usuaHy be found 
itrongly inclined to the dangerous delusion 
of self-justification. Their notion is, that 
al though they be frail creatures, yet they 
humbly trust they are not quite so bad. as 

ome persons ,vould represent them. They 
doubt not, but that their ,vorks win justify 
them as far as they go; that the merits of 
the Redeemer ,vill n1ake up all deficiencies; 
and that the infinite mercy of God will 
throw a veil over their casual irnperfections. 
Upon the ,vhole, they are inclined to hope 
that their good deeds far outweigh their 
occasional errors; and, to use the language 
of the poet, that they are Inen "lnore 


haply, instead of assailing certain ad"Cellturolis peculiari- 
ties, they direct their attacks against our com mOll Christia- 
nity itself. 
N e, pueri, ne tanta auimis assuescite beUa : 
N eu patria yalidaii in viscera vel'tite vires. 



6
 


!inned against than sinning: " at any rate, 
that their hearty repentance, and the 
pains and troubles ,vhich they encounter 
here, will Inake a 111 pIe atonement for all 
thcir transgressions. Thus, while they ac- 
knowledge in ,vords the necessity of a Sa.. 
,"iour, they in reality depend much Inore 
upon their own imaginary righteousness 
than upon the n1erits of Christ. 


The ,vhole of this ar]ses fronl spiritual 
blindness; for, if they really understood 
the purport o( the La,v, they ,vould never 
drealn that their own n1iserable performan- 
ces could. either partial1y or uni,'ersaIJ.r 'Jnerit 
the favour of God. Like the infatuated 
Jews in the days of our Lord, they have 
the Scriptures in their hands, and perhaps 
occasionally peruse theln; but they are 
totally unconscious that they are reading 
their own condClnnation. T'hey slulnber 
over the sacred page, and perceive not that 



63 


their curse is there recorded. Cursed is 
e'velY
 one, that abidetlt not in all tlte things 
of this Law. Their eyes are closed, so that 
they are unable to perceive their numerous 
violations of it, in thought, ,vord, and deed. 
Hence the La 'v is to them a dead letter; 
and they remain in a state of utter igno.. 
ranee of its spiritual design. 


u 'V e 
nd OUf ,vhole nature," says the 
illustrious Luther, " are entirely blind; 
nor is our reason more ignorant of any thing, 
than of the requisitions o.f God's La,v. 
Christ conferred a double benefit upon the 
Scribes and Pharisees: he first took away 
their blindness, by sho,ving them ,vhat the 
La,v is; and afterwards taught them, ho,v 
far the perfect obser\Tance of it exceeds 
their abilities. I-Ie took a,vay their b1ind- 
ness by informing them that the La,v is 
love; ,vhich doctrine bare reason is equally 
incapable of receiving at present, as the 



64 


Je\V
 were formerly. For, if reason could 
ha '''e co 111 prehended it, the Pharisees and 
the La wyers, who at thàt time \vere the 
best and wisest anlong the people, \vould 
doubtless have cOlnprehended it. But 
they itnagined that the whole matter con- 
sisted in performing the external works of 
the Law; and that it ,vas of little 11lonlent, 
whether they were done voluntarily or invo- 
luntarily. l\leanwhile their internal blind- 
ness, their avarice, and thcir darkened 
beart, passed \\
ithout observation; and 
they fancied that they were accurately dis- 
charging their duty. But no one is able 
to keep the La\,,", unless he be totally re- 
newed. Be assured therefore of this, that 
n1cre reason can never either understand or 
fulfi1 the J-Iaw, even though it nlay be ac- 
quainted with what the Law contains. 
'Vhcn do you do unto others, as you would 
- they should do unto you? 'Vho e\'er hear- 
tiI.r loved his cnerny ? \Vho ever died volun- 



65 


tarily? 'Vho ,viII undergo ,vith readiness, 
contumely and disgrace? Produce lne only 
a single lnan, who \viHingly subn1Ïts to the 
ignon1iny of a blasted character, or to the 
inconveniences of poverty. Nature and 
hu nlan reason abhor and shun such trials; 
and will always, if possible, avoid thcin. 
N or ,viII human nature ever fulfil those 
things,' ,vhich God requires in the Law; 
nalueJy, that ,ve should Inake a voluntary 
surrender of our will to his ,viII; that \ve 

hould renounce our inteJlect, our inclina- 
tions, faculties, and our powers, so COil1- 
plcte1y, as to be able to say, with 
 hearty 
assent, Thy will be done. So filr from this, 
you will ne\'er find a nlan, ,vho 10,-esGod and 
his neighbour equally "ith hinlselt:-It is 
Tnere hypocrisy to say, I do l01:e God, lie is 
lilY Fatlzer. So long indeed as he refrains 
fronl crossing our inclinations, ,ve can 
readily use such ]anguage; but, in the 
day of trouble and calanlity, we neither 
}
 



66 


regard hilTI as God nor a
 our Father. 
"\Videly different frOin these are the senti- 
ments of hill1 who sincerely loves God. I 
am thy creature, 0 Lord, do with me as it 
seemeth best to thy good pleasure. If it 
please thee, that I should die this 'very hour, 
or be plunged Ù
to the midst of evils, I 
cheerfully submit. J\;ly life, 'Iny l'cputation, 
my propel'ty, 'Inyall, I hold as nothing, u1zen 
placed in competition u'ith tllY 'trill. But 
what n10rtal man can you find, who ,viII 
always hold such language as this ,vith sin- 
cerity?-The I,aw requires that nothing 
should be even disagreeable to you, w bich 
is agreeable to God; that you should 
willi ugly obserye an his precepts and an his 
prohibitions, throughout the whole of your 
life and conversation. But there exi
ts not 
the Dlan who stands uncon(}(:lllned f()r his 
breach of that Law, which God requires to be 
observed. Such i; the trouble and affliction, 
in which" e are involved; nor are we in 
the ]east ab]e to extricate ourselves. 'fhis 



U7 


then is the 61"st knowlpdge of the J-.Ja \v; to 
know that it is impossible for luunan 
strength to observe it. God r
quires the 
heart; and, unless Ollr \vorks be done from 
the heart, they are of no value in his sight. 
'V arks indeed you n1ay do in out\vard 
appearance; but God is not satisfied with 
thenl, unless they spring fronl the sou] and 
from love: which can neycr be the case, 
unless a nlan be born again of the spirit. 
'Vherefore the end of the La w is to bring 
us to acknowledge our infirmity, insomuch 
that of ourselves "re are not a hIe to perform 
even the letter of the Law. ,As soon as you 
are convinced of this, the La\v has done its 
duty. Hence St. Paul as
erts that" by the 
T
aw is the knou'Zedge of sin.". 


Let persons of the class ",.hich I have 
been describing try their heart
, with fide- 


· Luther. Enarrat. Fol. 585. C. 



68 


lity and sincerity, by this admirable pa
.. 
sage. Let theln see, ,vhether they lo\'e 
God as they ought to do; whether they 
keep his statutes and his ordinances in the 
manner ,vhich he has prescribed; whether 
they find their whole souls so tota1Jy dC\Tot- 
cd to his service, as to exclude every vain 
thought and every foolish ,vish; whether 
their lite be spent iu an unceasing round of 
duties, both- negative and positive. All 
this is required by the La\v without any n1i- 
tigation and abateu1ent. lIenee, to those, 
,vho seek to be justified by their works, it is 
the sa"OUf of death unto death: .for they, 
,vho \vould be justified by the La,v, Innst 
keep the Lan". Hence also it is absoJuteJy 
necessary, that the 110])" Spirit should open 
the eJes of their understanding, in order that 
they may discern the purity of the Law and 
the extent of their danger. Till his gracious 
influences pervade their hearts, e\'ery spiri- 
tual sense is benulnbcd hy ignorance and 



69 


steeped in error. They see not the corru p. 
tion, which is the inheritance of all the 
children of Adam ; even the word of God 
cannot persuade theln of the reality of its 
existence. All, \vho attclllpt to convince 
them of it, are considered only in the light 
of gloomy hypochondriacs, ever brooding 
over imaginary evils. Their \vords appear 
to them as idle tales, which they cannot 
conlprehend and ,viII not believe. Scrip- 
ture alone can account for so singular a 
difference between these two classes of 
n1en. 'rhe one is possessed of a sense, of 
which the other is destitute.. Tile natural 
'lnan receivetlt not tlte tllings of the Spirit of 
God,. fm. they are foolishness unto him: 
neither can Ite know theIn, because they are 
spiritually discerned.' '}'his spiritual dis- 
cernment is the special gift of the fIoly 
Ghost. It is he, who causes the proud 


J 1 Corinth ii. 14. 


. . 
','" 



70 


sinner to see clearJy the requisitio11s of thfÞ 
La\v, and his own utter inability to per- 
fonn then1. It is he, \vho destroys that 
comfortable self-sufficiency, that hoUow se- 
curity, in which the soul had long reposed; 
and who, arnlcd ,vi th all the thunders of 
Sinai, rouses the sleeping conscience', and 
arrests the unwiJling attention. At the 
bar of such a judge every plea is rejected, 
and the stubborn reluctant sinner is conl- 
peUed to plcad guilty. lIe will now tho- 
roughly conlprchend the meaning of St. 
Paul's confession: I /tad not known Sill, 
but by the Law: for I had not kno'li''Jl lust, 
e:l'cept the La'l;) had said, Thou shalt not co"Cet. 
But sin, taking occasion by the commandJrlent, 
'lD1'O'llgltt in llle all1l1annCr of concupiscence. 
For 'æitltout tlte Law sin 'lcas dead. Fa l' I 

'as ali're U.it/LOllt the Laú.J once: but, 'l
:hen 
the connnandmellt came, sill re-ci-red, and I 
died. A nil the commandment, '{(:hick ",:as 
ordained to life, I found to bf unto death.. 



71 


For sin, faking occasion by the commandment, 
deceired nze ; and by it slew me. Jrhel'efore 
the Law is holy; and the COlnlnandlllent holy 
and just and good. lJTas then that which i
 
good made death unto llze? God forbid. 
But sill, that it might appear sin, u:orking 
death in rne by that which is good; that sin 
by the comlnandment rnight become exceeding 
sinful. For we know that the law is spiri- 
tual; but I am carnal, sold under sin.' 


So long as St. Paul relnained in his un- 
converted state, he ,vas totally unconscious 
of the spirituality of the Law, and per- 
ceived not that it contained the sentence of 
his condemnation. 'Vhile he ,vas thus placed 
withollt the real La'[ø, he seemed to himself 
alive; and entertained not the slightest 
doubt of his having merited salvation, 
being, as he elsewhere expresses himsel
 
touching the righteousness 
'hicll is in tlte 


I Row. ,ii. i. 



7
 


Law, bl{tm
less.' But, as soon as the 1101) 
Spirit opened his eyes, and whnl tlte cOln- 
mandmellt came, attended with a clear con- 
viction of his nun1erous breaches of it, and 
his utter inability to keep it; sin revh:ed, 
anù he evidently sa\V that he lay under 
sentence of death. He ,vas compelled 
indeed to acknowledge the La\v to be !toly, 
ond just, and good; but this "eryexceJIcl!ce 
served only to increase his condemnation. 
Though the comnlandn1ent was ordained ttJ 
life, he found it to be unto death; a conse.. 
quence ,vhich arose, not from the imperfec- 
tion of the Law, but froin the depravity of 
his o\vn nature. The I-Ioly Ghost having 
enabled hiln to see the spirituality of tht" 
Law, he then for the first time perceived 
that he ,vas carnal, sold under 8Ï1Z. And 
so deep ,vas the impression ,vhich this con- 
viction Inade upon his mind, that it forced 
hÌIn to exclaim in a kind of agony: 0 


I Phil. üi. tie 



73 


'a),.etcllt
d man that I am! who shall delive
,. 
me fror11, the body of tltis death? I-Ie ,vas 
now brought into a proper frame of mind 
to receive the Gospel of Christ. He sa\v 
his own manifold corruptions and the 
e:xtreme sinfulness of his sin; he perceived 
that he was unable of himself to help 
himself, and that his very best deeds could 
"not stand the scrutiny of him: ,vho 
t;hargeth e1;en his angels 'With foZZy. This 
conviction forced him to look unto Christ 
for salvation, and to submit himself to the 
righteousness of God. The Gospel ,vas 
now to hilD a savour of life unto life; he 
renounced all dependence on his o,vn 
goodness, and humbly thanked God for 
the pardon held out to him through, Jesus 
... Christ our Lord. 


Such \yere the varying emotions of St. 
Paurs heart, ,vhile the great ,vork of illu- 

nination was going on within him; and 



74 


such (for hl1111an nature IS the 5ame In 
an ages,) Inust be the convictions of every 
one, 'Vh0111 the 1-10])" Spirit condescends to 
instruct. 'Ve are not indeed to imagine 
that the sincerity of a man's conversion is 
to be estin1atcd by the strength of his 
feelings. 'fhe converted profligate ,viII 
natura1Jy be more deeply sensible of those 
stings, which a consciousness of the violat- 
ed La,v inflict.s upon the sou], than the 
decent moral Inan, who begins to suspect 
the safety of relying upon his own righ- 
teousnes
 : and the warmer a man's natural 
feelings are, the stronger will be his t.error 
,vhen labouring under a sense of guilt; for 
Christianity does not so much eradicate the 
passions, as enlist then1 into her service. 
But nlen of all tcnlperaments mu
t be 
thoroughly convinced of their o,vn exceed- 
ing vileness, what
ver their fee1ings 11lay he 
upon the oc'casion, or thcir under
tandings 
will never be sufficiently enlightened to 



75 


perceive the necessity of a mediator. They 
may indeed, previous to this conviction, 
acknowledge the ,vant of a Saviour ,vith 
their lips, and own in general terms that their 
lives are not perfectly free from sin: but, 
with re
pect to the hopes ,vhich they 
entertain of their salvation, they ,viII ever 
be found to place their principal depen- 
dence on the blamelessness of their lives, 
their benevolence towards their felIo\v-crea- 
hIres, and (in their more thoughtful hours) 
on sonle vagu
 notions of God's mercy. 


Observe the ,vorkings of a realJy 
humbled Inind in the confession of TIp. 
Beveridge. "If," says he, " there be not a 
bitter root in my heart, whence proceeds so 
much bitter fi'uit in my life and conversa- 
tion? Alas! I can neither set my head 
nor heart about any thing, but I still shQw 
myself to be the sintitl offspring of sinful 
parents, by being the sinful,parent of a sin- 
ful offspring. Nay, I do not only betray 



76 


the inbred venom of tuy heart, by poison- 
ing IllY COlnmon actions, but even D1Y tnost 
religious pcrforn1ances aIso, with sin. I 
cannot pray, but I sin; ,I cannot hear or 
preach a SCfll1on, but I sin; I cannot give 
an a]nls, or receive the sacnunent, but I 
sin; nay, I cannot so nluch as confess my 
sins, but my very confessions arc still 
aggravations of then}; Iny repentance 
needs to be repented of, nl y tears ,van t 
washing, and the very ,vashing of nlY tears 
needs stiU to be ,vashed over again with the 
blood of illY Redeclner. Thus, not only 
the ,vorst of nlY sins, but even the best of 
my duties, speak nle a child of .f\daln : 
Insom uch, that ,vhensoeyer I reflect upon 
IllY past actions, methinks I cannot but 
look upon DIY whole Jife, frOIn the tinle of 
my conception to this very Inonlcnt, to be 
but as one continued act of sin.". 


IF' Thoughts, Art. iv. 



77 


'Vhen a person is once brought into this 
state of mind, he \vill then, and not till 
then, begin to think serious1 y of another 
,,;orId. fIe \viH perceive hitnself to be a 
miserable, hclpless, undone sinner, justly 
obnoxious to the wrath of God. Instead 
of attc'npting to excuse and palliate his 
depravity, he win anticipate the sentence of 
l1Ïs judge, and be the first to pronounce 
condeOulation upon hinlself. lIe win see 
the impossibility of cleansing his impurity, 
and the \-anity of expecting to purchase 
sah
ati()n by any inherent righteousness of 
his own. It costs more to 'rcdeeln Ilis soul, 
$0 that he must let that alone for C'cer. 
'Vhen he considers his past life, he win be 
astonished at his fanner ignorance and in- 
sensibility. He \viU seem to himself like 
one rOl1sed from a deep slEcp, in ,vhich 
every faculty of his soul had been COln- 
pletely locked up; but he will awake on]J 
to perceive himself destitute" barc, and 
miserable. 



78 


So ro
e the Danite strong, 
Herculean Sampson from the harlot lap 
Of Phìlistean Dalilah, and wak'd, 
Shorn of his stængth 


He will no\v, with the astonished jailor, 
be ready to cry out, What shall I do to be 
saved? Driven from every strong-hold of 
vanity and presumption, he will leave tht! 
absurdly proud notioo of self-:justification 
to the blind Socinian and arrogant Pelagi.. 
an. Ho,vever he may once have indulged 
in the fantastic airy drean1 of his o,vn ex- 
cellence and dignity, he win no\v clearly 
percei ve, that there is no hope, no com- 
fort, no solid expectation of future happi.. 
ness, but in the name and through the 
merits of Jesus Christ. 


-..., 



CI-IAP. III. 


!to. __ .... 


.A description of two different Classts of 1Jlen, 'It'hose 
ullderstandings are enlightened, while their hearts re- 
main unaffected. 


. - .. 


T ,vo very differen t classes of men fre- 
quently attain to a considerable, I had al- 
Inost said an equal, degree of spiritual 
knowledge with respect to the sinfulness of 
sin and the requisitions of the divine La\v. 
They are both deeply convinced of the de- 
pravity of the hUlnan heart. They' are 
both conscious of their manifold aberra- 
tions and deficIencies in practice. They 



80 


both feel tbe load of their iniquity to be 
grievous and intolerable. Neither of these 
classes attelnpts to justify itself. Each is 
forced by conscience to cry out Unclean t 
tillclean. Each is secretly constrained to 
acknowledge the righteousness of God. 
Thus far the parallel holds good between 
them, but here it terminates; and a strik- 
ing difference comlnenCe!, ,vhich ,vin best 
be discerned by a separate delineation of 
the character of each. 


I. The anguish, ,vhich pcr
ons of the first 
description fed, arises mel"cly fron1 a con- 
sciousness of guilt and from a dread of 
threatened punishlnent. In their cas
 
there is no spiritual loathing of the black- 
ness of sin, no horror of it springing from 
the knowledge of its hatefulness to God, 
no indignation, no vehement desire, no z'eal, 
no rcre71ge. 1 The tempest in t/lCir hearts 


I 
 Cor. vii. 11. 



81 


15 conjured up solely by terror, unn1Ïxed 
terror. They feel nothing of filial sorrow. 
at having offended their hea\Tenly Father; 
they feel no c01l1punction at having count- 
ed the blood of atonement an unholy 
thing; they feel no grief. at having resisted 
the gracious influences of the f-Ioly Spirit. 
Sin still reigns trium phant in their hearts; 
and they inwardly abhor that IJaw., which 
strikes at the very existence of their idoL 
\Vere all fears of future punislllnent rcrnov- 
ed, and ,vere they assured beyond a possi- 
bility of doubt, that ll]ere annihilation 
,vould hereafter be their portion; these 
joyful tidings \vould ,vipe Rway all tears 
froln their eyes, and ren10ve every uneasy 
thought froin their heart. Let us eat and 
drill/c, for to-mot'row we die. '"they ,vould 
return ,vith avidity to their former vicious 
indulgences, regardles
, whether their con- 
duct was pleasing or displeasing to the 1\Io5t 
F ' 



H
 


IIigh. It is not -sill that they hate, but tn 
'lcages of sin; it is not God that they 
lo\ye, but their OU,1n safef.lJ. 


In vain is the ,vonderful goodness and 
long suffering of the Lord beld up before 
the eyes of theår understanding. The 
nun1berless blessings ,vhich they enjoy, the 
numberless evils frOll) which they are ex.. 
ell1pt, th
 patience with ,vhich God has 
endured their perverseness, the opportuni- 
ties ,vhich he has given them of repent- 
ance, the tender loving kindness ,vitl;1 
which he condescendingly solicits (as it 
,,,ere) a reconciliation ,vith them; like 
GaUio, theJ care for none of these things. 
In vain for them doth the ,vhole creation 
prQclainl the beneficence of the great 
Creator. In vain for them cloth be cau'Se 
the sun to shine, and the seasons to revolve 
in grateful vicissitude. In vain for the
 



83 


doth he, by the powerful Inachincry of 
nature, send tlte spl o ings into tlte rivers, 
'(..JliÏclt run a1JlOJlg the hills. IQ vain for 
theIn, by the united operation of various 
causes, cloth he bring food out of tlte earth, 
and 'l
iJZe tit at lnaketh glad the heart cif 11Zall, 
and oil to lllake ItÙn a cheerful COllntenance, 
and bread to strengthen 11lan'S heal't. 1 
They w.ill riot in these blessings even to 

atiety ; tlte harp and the viol, the tabret and 
pipe, are in their feasts: but they regal'd 
not the u 1 ol'k cif the Lord, neither cOllsideJo 
tIle operation of his llands.%. 


The mysterious act of n1ercy disp]a.Ye(l 
in man
s redemption Inay be described to 
them, but it excites no feeJing of gratitude 
in their souls. The blameless life, the 
wonderful Jo\"e, the bitter sufferings, and 


J Pt\al.m civ. 10. 



 haiah v. 12.. 



84 


the lingering death, of the Son of God an
 
acknowledged in words indeed, but fail to 
touch their hearts. Though salvation b
 
freely offered to thenl, though the mild 
voice of the Redcelner calls upon aU who 
thirst to drink of the ,vater of everlasting 
life; they angrily dash the proffered cup 
froln their lips, and hate that mode of sal... 
Tation ,vhich requires the dereliction of sin. 
In short, th.eir understandings are convinc- 
ed, hut their hearts relnain untouched. 
'fhey see the danger of sin, but they love it 
and clcave to it; they perceive the neces- 
iity of a life of holiness, but they detest 
aud abhor it. Like the devils, they believe 
and trenlble; but, like theln also, the)"" 
fight indignantly against the Lord and 
aO'ainst his Christ. Even the O.'f kno'ü'!eth 
ö 
his owner, and the ass his master's crib: but 
tltey are dead to eyery sense of gratitude; 
they consider God in tb
 light of a tyrant, 



85 


who seeks to deprive then1 of their dearest 
cnjoynlents. 


"The power of the ,vord," says Bp. 
Iteynold3, " towards wicked 1l1en is seen in 
affrighting of the
n; there is a spirit of 
bondage, and a savour of death, as weU as a 

pirit of life and liberty, ,vhich goeth a10ng 
with the word. Guilt is an inseparable con- 
sequent of sin; and fcar, of the luanifesta- 
tion of guilt. If the heart be once convinced 
of this, it will presently faint, and treulble, 
even at the shaking of a leaf, at the ,vag- 
ging of a nlan's own conscience; ho\v 
luuch Blore at the voice of t
le I.Jord, w'hich 
shaketh mountains and n1aketh the strong 
foundations of the earth to treluble ?-It is 
not for ,vant of strength in the ,vord, or 
bpcausc there is stoutness in the hearts of 
nlen to stand out against it, that all the 
,vlcked of the ,,,"orId do not trc111ble at it, 
but InercI)' thcir Ignorance of the power 



86 


and evidence thereof. The deví1s are 
stronger and Ulore stubborn creature5 
than any Inan can be; Jet, because of 
their full ilIun1Ïnation and that invincible 
conviction of their consciences froIll the 
power o( the word, they believe and trenl- 
bIe at it.-1 1 he power of the ingraffed 
,yord towards ,vicked Ulen is seen even in 


the rage and D]adness ,vhich it excites in 
them. It is a sign, that a Ulan hath to do 
,vith a strong enenlY, ,v hen he buckleth on 
all his harness, and caIJeth together all his 
strength for opposition. The nlost caInl 
and deyout hypocrites in the ,vorld have by 
the pO"Tr of this ,vord been put out of 
their denlure temper, and luightily trans- 
ported with outrage and bitterness agajnst 
the majesty' thereof: one tinle filled \vith 
,vrath; another tin1e filled ,vith Dladness; 
another tinle fined ,vith envy and indigna- 
tion; another tÏ1ne filled ,vi th con tradic., 



87 


tÌOll and blasphemy; another tilUC cut to 
j . 
the heart, and, like reprobates in he]], 
gnashing ,vith their teeth. Such a search- 
ing power and such an extreme contrarie- 
ty there is in the Gospel to the- lusts of 
men, that if it do not subdue, it will won- 
derfully swell them up, tìll it distemper 
even the grave prudent men of the ,vodd 
,vith those bru tish and uncomely affections 
of rage and fury, and drive disputers frOln 
their argunlents unto stones. Sin cannot 
endure to be disquieted, much less to be 
shut in and encompassed with the curses of 
God's word. 'fherefore, as a hunted beast, 
in an extren1ity of distress, ,vill turn back, 
\, 
and put to its utmost strength to be 
revenged on the pursuers and to save its 
]ife: so ,vicked men
 to sa\'c their lusts, 
will let out all their rage, and open an their 
sluices of pride and Inalice to withstand 
that ho1y truth, ,vhich doth so closdy pur- 



A8 


5ue theln. I -Tilllnen can be persuaded to 
lay apart all filthiness and super11uity of 
naughtiness, theÿ will never receive the in- 
graffed word with Inceknes
. For till then 
it is a binding I,vord, ,vhich sealcth their 
guilt and condeLl1nation upon thenl. u a 


Perhaps no state of nlind is more deplo- 
rable than that in ,vhich an enlightened 
understanding is united to an unconycrted 
heart. J t is a state tota]Jy devoid of peace 
and conlfort, full of terror and a feaJ:(lll 
looking out-for of judgment and fiery 
indignation. The e'yes of the n1Ïnd are 
opened, so as to discern clearly that he is 


I To fJ.EIJ xctTCl.ye).,Cl.C;Ð"'ìva., 'O-GO) OUÕSII ?I'
ctYfJ.ct' AS'1l1ct.o.) rag 
'f0', 00) EfJ.O' ôuxe' J ou cr,?o't
ct fJ.E).,SI, Cl.V '1'111'" ÔélV()1I O'GOI/TC/.' EIVt;U, 
"'." fJ.éV1'O' 
'Ôct(Jxc/').,'xov T"'ì) aúTOu o-O
lct)' Óll Õ av X"'I "').,).,ou) 
"
IITC/.' 'i'f01fl1l TC'WTOU), SUP-OUIITCI-.. Plat. Euth'yphron. 
 3. 


$ fip. lleJnùlds's "T orks J pp. 365, 366, 367. 



89 


not a Christian ,vho IS one outwardly. 
The a\vakened conscience is tremblingly 
alive to e'
ery touch. It perceives the nc.. 
cessity of repentance; and it acknowledgei 
the obligation laid upon all true believers 
to take up their cross and fol1ow Christ. 
But the ,viII and tbe affections are wanting; 
a secret hatred and reluctance reigns in 
tbe heart; and the ,vhole n1an loathes the 
burden ,vhich he conceives to be imposed 
upon hiln. i\Ieanwhile a person of this 
description is deeply convinc:.d, that, ,vith 
his present temper and disposition, it is 
utterly iUlpossible for hin1 to enter into the 
kingdonl of hea\ycn. lIe knows that he 
labours under a natural unfitness for it, and 
that he could find no happiness even in the 
presence of God hilnse1f, unless a cOlnplete 
change should previously take place in his 
heart. rrhis awful truth is evident, bcyond 
3. possibility of contradiction, to the man 



90 


\vhose understanding has been so far en.. 
lightened as' to comprehend the requisition:: 
of the Law and the nature of holiness; 
but, his heart being at the same time totally 
unaffected and unaltered, he cannot con- 
ceive ,vhat pleasure there can be in a 
perpetual conlmunion ,vith God and in the 
purely spiritual joys of 11eaven. Hence 
arises his 111isery: he kno,vs that he is un- 
fit for heaven, and he shudders at the 
thoughts of hell. Gladly ,vouJd he escape 
into SOlne n1Ïddlc place of abode, ,vere an}- 
such in existence, equally undisturbed by 
the presence of God and the tonnents of the 
rlanlned. I-lis future destiny perpetually 
haunts his ilnngination: and he flies from 
himself to seek relief in the n1Ïdst of con}- 
pany and dissipation. For a tinle, he proba- 
bly succeeds: for a tilne, he contrives to 
silence his conscience. The ever-yar'ying 
pageant of vain anluselnents graduaU.v 



91 


banishes the recollection of those tleep 
inl}Jressions which he had fonnedy receiv- 
ed ; and he once Inore feels sOIncthing at 
least of the pleasures of this wodel. But, 
if ever the strings of conscience happen to 
be again touchcd, l
e relapses into all his 
former Jniscry ; a .n1Ïsery, 1110rCO\1cr, now too 
frequently nlixed ,vith a sort of hellish rage 
and malice against his lllonitor. Perhaps 
the Gospel is never sincerely eXplained 
and enforced, ,,'ithout either effecting a 
change in the heart, or exciting a spirit of 
bitter anill10sity and determined opposition. 

len cannot bear to hayc their false 
tJ'anquiIlity broken in upon; they cannot 
bear to have the truth faithfully set before 
theln; they cannot bear to have the carnal 
security of thcir sinful pleasures disturbed. 
Provided thcse points be not touched upon, 
they will listen ,yith the utn10st compla- 
cency to an eulogy on the beauty of 



92 


"irtue and the dignity of hunlan nature; 
but, the Inoment they are cOlnpelled to 
look ,vithin thenlselves, their patience fails 
thcIn, and they are sometimes a1together 
unable even to conceal their indignation. 


II. 
rhe second class, which I purposed 
to describe, is Cûl1Jposed of persons of a 
character radically different froru that of 
the fornler. 'fhese see their duty to its full 
extent; they thoroughly cOlnprehend the 
,spirituality of the La\v; and they readily 
acknowledge the greatness of their religious 
obligations: but, at the sanle time, they 
can find no inward satisfaction, no secret 
complacency, in obeying the di\'ine COIU- 
-- 
mandments. I an1 not at present speaking 
of those who indulge in grosser sins: it 
,vould be ahnost an insult to praise a Illan, 
,vho had l11ade C\Ten thc least pro.Çress III 
Christianity, on account of his sohriety or 



93 


his honesty. I The defect In the person
, 
whose characteïs I am describing, consists 
in their having a ,viU untamed, unbending, 
and unsubdued. Their affections are too 
much placed on things below, and too 
little on things above. ,rhatever duties 
they perform are discharged fronl a sense of 
religious obligation merely; not froln find- 
ing in the discharge of then) that spiritual 
pleasure, that comn1union ,vit.h God, ,vhich 
appears to be at once the happiness and the 
privilege of a Christian. They do not take 
up the yoke with their ,,,hole heart, though 
conscience forces thell1 in some lneasure to 
sublnit to it. Thf'Y are strangers to that, 
,vhich is prophesied of our Lord in the 
Psalms; I delight to do tlly ú:ill, 0 'IllY God, 


· " Integritatem at que abstinentiam in tanto -viro refer- 
re injuria "irtutuw fuerit/' TQrir. Yiff .IIgrie. 
 9. 



!J4 


yea, thy lau: is '"{âtlzin llzy heart 
 'f nor call 
they cOlnprehend how. it cou)d be his 'lneat 
to do the will o.l hÏ1Jl that sent hun.t. They at- 
tcrupt indeed to perforn1 this ,vill; but 
eycry effort is grief and weariness to them. 
'fhey strive to conquer their dislike; but, in- 
stead of yielding, it seems rather to increase. 


Thus far they coincide in SOUle 111easure 
w ith thos
 unhappy nlen, ,vhose case hac; 
been alread.r described; but here, the grand, 
the constituent, difference between then1 
COlnnlences. The former detest and oppose 
the Ia,v of God: the latter sinlply derive no 
pleasure from paying obedience to it, and 
are not interested in its precepts 
s they 
could ,,,,ish to he. 'fhe first absolutely hate 
t1lf.
 divine inlage, ,vhich shines conspicu- 
ousl y in the character of every true Christ... 


· P
alm xl. 8. 


:z. Johniv. 34. 



95 


Ian: the second love it, and labour earn- 
estly to acquire it, grieving bitter1y at the 
,vaywardness and perverseness of their 
hearts. The first are anxious to stifle the 
voice of conscience, and burn \vith rag
 
against any person \vbo attempts t9 rouse 
it: th6 second endeavour to keep the con- 
science tender, and do not cease to regard 
a neighbour as a friend, though he D1ay 
point out failings and deficiencies. In 
short,"the former stumble at the very thresh- 
old of Christianity: while the latt
r lalneut 
their unwillingness, yet continue striving to 

cq uire a relish for their duty. 


The condition of this second description 
of per
ons is doubtless uncomfortable, but 
yet very far (I apprehend) from being 
dangerous. l..et not such despair: let 
thenl Dot doubt, but that God, .in his own 
good time, win accomplis
 the ,york, which 



96 


he has begun ,vithin then]. That they are 
possessed of any good ,,'ishes, that their 
hearts are at all inclined, !lou'evc,. small 
tllat inclination may be, towards a desire of 
gaining the favour of God, is an argument 
of greater blessings yet in store for then1. 
E-ccry good and c'L'cry pelfect gift comet"
 
froln abo'ce; nor is a single one bestowed 
,vithout carrying with it a denlonstration of 
good will towards Inan. IIowever dark and 
clouded may be the prospects of those, 
w.ho acknowledge and lament the hardness 
of their hearts and their utter disinclination 
towards that which is good; blessed be 
God! despondency ought not to be their 
þortion. lie, who has prolnised that he 
,viII not bruise the broken reed 1101" qucnch tht 
smoking jlax, ,vould never have raised 
those wi
hes for a better disposition of the 
heart, without an intf.otion to gratify them. 
Ask, and '!ie shall lla'l:e; seek, and Yf shall 



97 


find, is one of those comfortable promises, 
with ,vhich Scripture abounds: and ,ve 
cannot, we ought not to doubt, but that the 
&trength of Israel 'will accept everyone 
without distinction, 'v ho cometh to hiln in 
his Son's name. It is even poss
ble, that a 
man's heart may be 5incerely attached to 
God, ,vhen he himself is the most ready to 
suspect its sincerity. Actions, not ,vords, 
are the best proofs of a state of grace; 
nd 
the performance of those duties, from 
which our natural inclinations shrink, is 
assuredly the very highest exertion of reli- 
gious ob
dience. Thus, if ,vc may argue 
from our intercourse ,vith each other, we 
are a
customecl to set a n}uch greater value 
upon the friendship, which ,viII 
xpose it- 
self for our sake to difficulties and incon- 
veniences, than upon that ,vhich in serving 
us merely gratifies its own inclinations. 
The road of duty is indeed thorny and pain- 
G 



!:I 8 


inl to those, whose natural affections ruf} in 
a different channel: but let them earnestly 
pray to God to grant then1 strength and 
perseverance, to relDove their heart of 
stone, and to give thenl a heart of flesh. 
The first of these petitions he ,viII most 
assuredly listen to; and, if the second be 
110t inuncdiately grantcd, they 111ay be ccr
 
tain that the refusal proceeds fron1 ,vise 
reasons best known to hilllsclf. lie may 
for a tilue be deaf to their intreaties, with 
a vic,v to try thcir fhi th and to exercise 
thcir patience; to sho\v thenl, what ,veak, 
Iniserable, helpless creatures they arc ,vIth.. 
out his assistance; and to train them up in 
the school of spiritual discomfort, in order 
that they Dlay be better prepared for the 
ever1asting rest of heaven. This dissatis- 
faction ,vith the ,vorld and ,vith thelnselves 
proceeds from God; and however painful 
it Dlay þe for the present, let theln recQl.. 



99 


tect, that the chastisement of their heaven- 
]y Father is the result, not of hatred, but 
of lo\-e. The sordid ,vorIdling, an d the 
dissipated voluptuary, arc strangers to that 
conflict betw.een duty and inclination, 
\vhich exists in a greater or in a less degree 
,vithin the boson1 of every Christian. 
lIenee it is evident that such a struggle, 
provided only that duty generaHy prevails, 
is an evidence of spiritual life. The dead 
feel not; the living only possess the po\vers 
of action and sensation. In the mean 
tÎ111e, till God is pleased to grant thenl 
more of that peace ,vhich passeth all 
understanding, let them strengthen their 
hearts \vith some such promises as the 
following. 


For a s llall171017zent have I forsaken thee; 
but with great mercies will I gather thee. 
In (l, little wrath 1 hid lny face from thee 



tuo 


J01' a 'IilO/llent; but 'lcitlt c-cerlasting kindlles.fI 
will I hat'e luercy on thee, saith the L01'd thy 
Redet-mer. F01' tlte mOll1ftains shall depart, 
and tile hills be 1'eJno.ced; but 11lY kindness 
$hall not depart fronz. thee, neither shall tllf 
'Covenant oj' 111!} peace be relllOt'cd, saitk tile 
Lord, that hath 1uercy on thee. Ok, thou. 
afflicted, tossed '(V it It tempest, and not com- 
fOflted, behold, I 'll'ill tay thy stones uitlt 
fait, colours; and lay thy foundations wit/t 
sapphires. And I u'ill1nake tlly u'índows of . 
agates, and thy gat
s r;,'ith cat'buncles, and 
all thy bOl'ders of pleasant stones. And all 
lIlY children shall be taught of the Lord: 
(lnd great shall be the peace of t 11Y children. 
111 1"igltteollsness sllalt t!tOll be establish'cd: 
thou shalt be far from oppression; for thou 
shalt not fear; mzd from terror; for it shall 
7lot cOlne neal' thee. ]'lo u'capon that is 
forlned against thee shall pl'ospel'; and 
every tongue, that shall rise against thee zn 



101 


judglnent, tllOll shalt condenzn. This is tlte. 
he1'itage cif the SC1"Vants of the Lord, and 
their righteousness is of 'Ine. s.aith tIle L01'd.- 


]( Isaiah Iiv. 7. 




 


CHAPTER IV. 


. - - 


The irifluence if the lIoly Spirit upon the "lvilL 


.. -. 


1\fAN being by nature in a state of com- 
plete darkness and ignorance, so far as re- 
lates to spiritual things, the first operation 
of the Holy G host must necessarily be to 
l'enlove the veil fron1 off his heart and to 
enlighten his understanding. 'fhis, ho,v- 
ever, as ,ve have already seen, is of little 
use, unless the affections be also reclaimed 
fron1 the love of sin and converted to the 
love of God. The divine principle, never.. 



103 


thcless, nlay exist in the heart, eyen when 
the fayoured possessor of it least suspects 
its presence and is alnlost ready to despair 
frOll1 his supposed deficiency in it. 'fhe 
striking difference betw'cen the character 
of these hUlnble, dejected, self-condemning, 
believers, and the character of those unhap... 
py lnen, who kno,v the truth only to hate 
and reject it, has been sufficiently sho,vn. 
\Vbatever degree of reluctance a Ulan luay 
feel in the pcrfonnance of his duty, Jet, if 
he do perfornl it., if he daily pray and stri,'e 
against this reluctance, if, instead of hatred 
to,vards the Son of (;od, he at tÍn1es be 
scnsible of tender grief fronl the conscious.. 
ness of his own obduracy and ingratitudc; 
he nlay depend upon it, that these eUlO- 
tions, so opposite to the he}]ish tenJper of 
an unrene,ved heart, are the first-fruifs of 
that Spirit, ,vhose peculiar office it js to 
guide the Christian into all/rut/i. 



 



104 


'Vicked 111en indeed have sometimes good 
,vishes. Even Ba)aam, when obstinately 
resisting the counsel of the 1\lost High, 
could yet exclaim, Ñlay I die the death of 
tile 1'ighteollS, and 1nay rny latter end be like 
lzis! But unhappi]y these \vishes only spring 
up occasionally. 'I11ere is nothing of that 
abiding sense of God's presence, that restless 
desire of a f5Teater degree of communion 
'with hinl, ,vhich every real Christian is ,vortt 
to experience. In _the unconyerted, good 
înlpressions, however lively at :first, soon 
,vear off; and they gradually return to their 
fonner habits of irreligion: but, in the chil- 
dren of God, such ilupressions perpetuaIly 
acquire fresh vigour and energy; they gro,v 
"with their growth, and strengthen with their 
strength, until they imperceptibly becolne 
the main spring of ev
ry thought and ac.,. 
60 n . 



105 


"The foulest hearts," says Bishop HaU, 
"do sOlnetiulcs en tertain good Inotions; 
1ike as, on the contrary, the holiest souls 
give ,vay sometimes to the suggestions of 
evil. The flashes of lightning Inay be di
- 
ceraed in the darkest prisons: but, if good 
thoughts look into a wicked heart, they stay 
not there; as those that Jike not their lodg- 
ing, they are soon gone. Hardly any thing 
distinguishes betwixt good and eviJ, but 
continuance. The light, that shines into a 
holy heart, is constant" like that of the sun, 
,vhich keeps due times, and varies llDt his 
cour
e for any of these sublunary occa- 


. " . 
Slons. - 


The Holy Spirit, then, having enlightened 
the understanding, proceeds, in the next 


J Hall's Works, p. 105S. 



106 


place, to renovate the will and the affec- 
tions. At first, the change in the inclina- 
tions is scarcely to be perceived. Oppress- 
ed ,vith a load of superincunlbent corrup- 
tions, the spark of divine life seelns at tilnes 
ahnost to approach to utter extinction. 
But not one ,vord or one tittle of aU God's 
pro111ises can fail. The snloking flax ,vill 
graduaUy burst out into a clear flanle, ,vhen 
fanned by the gentle breezes of the 110J y 
Spirit. A greater conforn1it.y win soon t
kc 
1)1ace between the ,vill of the Christian, and 
the ,vill of his God. Even should thi
 
cOlnfort be for a season denied, still be is 
under the protection of his Lord; who 
vie,vs ,vith a loving pity the struggle in his 
heart, and who will doubtless, as soon as it 
shan be expedient for hinl, cause tlte light 
of hi.f\ countenance to shine upon ltÙn. l\lean- 
,vhile all things 'Work togethe'/" for Ilis good; 
and, if his inclinations be deficient in fer.. 



107 


,.ency, his conscience acquires fresh tender- 
ness and more acute disccrnnlent. The 
difficulty, ,vhich he finds in loving ,vhat he 
ought to love, gives hinl deeper yiews of 
sin, and convinces hinl Inorc eflèctuaIJy of 
his o,vn utter inability. lIe no,v discovers, 
and believes, on the sure ground of actual 
experience, that in lti1ìlselj d'tcelleth no good 
thing, and that all his sl!Uicienc!} i$ of' God. 
So far fron1 being faithful to grace, as SOlne 
vainly talk, he daily sees more and lTIOre of 
l1is unfaithfulness; and, though he striYe8 
under the influence of the Holy Spirit to 
1øork out !tis salration, Jet he is constrained 
to acknowledge that it is God 'who 'It.'orketlt 
in !tinz both Jo u'ill and to do. 


Since Scripture represents l11a11 in his 
natural state as dead in trespasses and sin; 
it ,viH follo,v, unless the whole propriety 
of the metaphor be destroyed, thnt he is 



108 


totaHy unable, by any inlie'rent strength of 
}1Ïs own, to raise himself up to the life of 
righteousness. This figurative 'resllrrection 
froDI the dead is the same, as ,vhat is some.. 
times termed, by a different metaphor, 1'e- 
generation or a lltW birth. It is occasion- 
ally like\vise represented as a new cl"eation. 
All which images plainly teach us, both 
that a very essential change must take place 
in the moral constitution in order to a man's 
being a Christian, and that that change 
must be effected by some extrinsic power. 


" To be born again implies, that, as no 
luan can besto,v upon himself a natural 
being-therefore the Scripture chooses to 
express this ne,v birth by such terms as im- 
port in us an utter impossibility and Î1npo- 
tency to effect it by our o\vn po\ver. It is 
called the quickening the dead; you hatl" 
lie quickened, says the Apostle, 'li'ho were 



109 


dead in trespasses and sins. Lòok, how'ln1.. 
possible it: is for a dead 111an, that is shut 
do"rn under the bars of the grave, that is 
crumbled away into dust and ashes, to pick 
up every scattered dust and to fonn them 
again into the san1e mClnbers: look, ho,V' 
impossib]e it js for him to breathe ,vithout 
a sou], or to breathe that soul into hilnself. 
Alike ilnpossible is it for a natural luan, 
,vho hath lain nlany years in the death of 
sin, to shake off fron) himself that spiritual 
death, or to breathe into hin1self that spiri- 
tual and heav
nly ]ife that Inay Inake him 
a living soul before God." I 1\lost assured.. 
1y "for this great w.ork God only is equal; 
it is not in our po,ver to regenerate our- 
selves: for we are not born of blood, nor of 
the will oj" the flesh, nor of the will of man, 


· Bishop Hopkjns.s 'Vorks p. 531. 



110 


that is, not of any natural created strength, 
but of God."1 lIe it is, ,vho ll1aketh us ne,v 
creatures. By his IIoly Spirit, not by any 
strength of our o,vn, the divine principle of 
Jove, ,vithout ,vhich no lnan can live ,veU, 
is diffused through our hearts.7. 


So great a. change, 11 0 'v eyer, IS not 
eflècted ,rithout much opposition on the 
part of those, ,vho are the subjects of it, 
nor ,vithout a vehelnent exercise of that 
detern1Ïned resolution, ,vhich God alone 
can confer upon theln. "After lnan'y 
strugglings and conflicts 'with their lusts and 
the strong bias of evil habits," as it is rightly 


, Bishop 'Yilkin3 on Prayer. chap. xvii. 


S It Charitas Dei, sine quâ llcmo bene vivit, diffll
lllitllr 
iu cordibus llostris, non a nobis, scd per Spiritum.Sanctum 
qui datus est nobis." Augustin. Epist. 105. 



111 


observed by Abp. Tillotson," this resolu- 
tion, assisted by the grace of God, do
s 
effectualIy prevail and l1lake a real change 
both in the tenlper of their minds and in 
the course of their lives: and ,vhen that is 
done, and not before, they are said to be 


" J. 
'J'e generate. - 


\Vell then might St. Austin exc)ainl, 
" To justify a sinner, to nc\v crcate him 
froln a ,vicked person to a righteous lnan, 
is a greater act, than to l1lake such a ne,v 
heaven and earth as is already Inade.".t. 
"\tV ell might the pi.ous founders of our 
Church maintain that, " the more regenera- 
tion is hid froln our understanding, the 
1110re it ought to move a1l1uen to ,vonder at 
the secret and ll1ighty w'orking of God's 


a Tillotson's Serm. on Gal. \i. 15. 



 Cited in Homily for Rogat. 'Veek. part i. 



11
 


l-Iol.r Spirit, ,vhich is ,vithin us. For it is 
the I-Io]y Ghost, and no other thing, that 
doth quicl{en the luinds of men, stirring up 
good and godly Inotions in their hearts, 
".hich are agreeable to the ,vill and COffi- 
Inandment of God, such as otherwise of 
their Ol\7n crooked and perverse nature they 
s110uld never ha vc. That '(f)hich is bOl
n of 
the Spirit is SpÏ1'it. As ,vho should say, 
\ 
man of his own nature is fleshly and carnal, 
corrupt and naught, sinful and disobedient 
to God, ,vithout any spark of goodness in 
him, ,vithout any virtuous or godly 111otion, 
only given to evil thoughts and \vicked 
deeds" -yet " such is the po".er of tIle 
Holy Ghost to regenerate n1(i
n, aI1d as it 
,vere to bring them forth ane,v, that they 
shall be nothing like the n1cn that they 
,vere before." I 


, 


· Homily for 'YhitsundaJ. part i. We may observe 
t'hat in this passage our venerable ref9rmcrs) in exact accor- 



113 


The reason ,vhy our Lord insists so much 
upon the absolute necessity of that change 


d
ll1ce with the preceding citations from Abp. Tillotson 
and Bps. Hopkins and Wilkins, clearly speak of regenera- 
tion as taking place in adult suhjects; and therefore do 
not attach it necessarily, and in the 'l:r.;ay of cause and 
effect, to baptism. Analogous to it, is the declaration in 
the catechism, that the two sacraments are only generally 
necessary to salvation. For, since our Lord asserts that 
regeneration is absolutel!! necessary to salvation, if our 
reformers had helieved that the inward spiritual grace was 
altogether imeparabl, from the out\\'
1Td visible sign, they 
rn
st have maintained that baptism was not merely gene- 
1'ally, but indispensab(v, necessary to our entering into the 
kingdom of heaven. These eÅplanatory declarations oftheir 
.entiments in the homilies and catechism will teach us, 
llOw we ought to understand the phraseology of lh
 bap- 
tismal service. Sacramental regeneration is there hoped, 
in the judgment of charity, to be real regeneration; just as 
. 
St. Paul, in his epistles, is wont to address a wholc church, 
, . 
as if et'ery oue of its members were indisputable heirs of 
salvation: but, whether the subjects of baptism have 
1'e!l/ly been renewed by the Holy Spirit, must be. determin- 


II 



114 


of the heart, usual1y denOlninated regenera- 
tion/ appears to be sinlply this; 1i:i-thout sllch 
change (
:e should labour uncle)' a sort oj 
natural urifitness to enter into the killgdoln 
cif' !tea-cell. No luau can be happy in the 
COIl1pany of those, whose views and p
r- 
suits are totaJIy dissiu1ilar to his own. 


ed by their futu,re conduct. In fact, if we maintain that 
regeneration is so inseparable from baptism, that et'f1'Y 
baptized person is regenerate, and tbat ere?'!! unbaptized 
person is 'll1lregenerate: we shaH be eompeHed to maintain 
that the devout Cornelius was absolutely in the gall of 
bitterness until he was baptized, while the baptized sorce. 
rer Simon was a truly regenerate Christian, notwithstand- 
ing he is declared by Peter to have neither lot nor part in 
;the Holy Spirit. If the reader wish to See the cloctIÏne 
of regeneration clearly stated and the phraseology of the 
baptismal setvice ably explained, he would do well to 
peruse. with attention four sermons by Bp. Hopkins OD 
J Ohl1 iii. 5. Tbey form a complete treatise on tþe subject- 


· John iii. 1-21. 



115 


'fhey must either conforn1 to hiln, or be to 
them, before they will be able to associate 
together. lIe, that is uneasy in the pre- 
sence of the pious upon earth, can never 
derive any pleasure froIn spending an eter- 
nity \vith them. The joys of heaven are 
described as purely spiritual; so much so, 
that even the very best of men, in their 
.. 
present imperfect state, are unable fully to 
conlprehend theln. Au intimate communion 
with God, an intense degree of devotion, a 
peace of nlÎnd ,vhich passetl1 aU under- 
standing, an entire coincidence of their ,vill 
with the ,vill of God, a never-ceasing round 
of praise and thanksgiving, are proposed 
to the, servants of Christ, as their stimulus 
here, and their portion hereafter. But, if 
a Ina.n have no re!ish for any of these enjoy- 
ments, e'en Paradise itself would be 110 
Paradise to hiro. 'Vhat excited the high- 
est pleasure in others, \vould produce in 



116 


him no other sensations than those of 
,veariness and disgust. IIis sou] ,,",ould 
sicken at the vie,v of that happiness, ,vhich 
he ,vas incapable of tasting; and, like the 
fabulou
 "rantalus, he ,vould starve in the 
midst of plenty. On these grounds it is, 
that Bishop Reynolds some\vhere remarks, 
\vith no less beauty than jUf:tice, that the 
luan, who is weary of a single sabbath upon 
earth, can never derive any satisfaction 
fron1 the observance of a perpetual sabbath 
in heaven. Every faculty of the soul ll1ust 
receive a nc,v tendency; the image of Satan 
must be gradual1y eradicated, and the 
inlage of God must be planted in its stead; 
or ,ve can never expect to enter into the 
kingdoln of Christ. 


It 111ay perhaps be asked, ,vho then can 
be saved? For ,vhere js the man whose ,viII 
ii ill itO perfect a state of conformity ,vith 



117 


the win of God, as to experience no inw'ard 
resistance, no internal struggles, ,vhen 
obcying the divine commandrnents? '\There 
is the person, who possesses such a degree 
of hea\Tcnly mindedness, as always to prefer 
the prospects of happiness in another ,vorld 
to the certainty of present grrt.tification in 
this? 


I rcaàiIy answer, that no such character 
exists on this side of the grave; nor are ,ve 
to expect that any such ever will. The 
deeper insight a man acquires into his own 
heart, the lllore deeply ,vill he be convinced 
of his inveterate corruption and manifold 
infinnities; the more bitterJy will he bc,vail 
his sins, and lament the perverseness of his 
,viII and affections. IIere we are not to 
expect any thing n1ore, than the beginning 
of the spiritual life; the conSllnl'mation and 



118 


pelf ection of it is reserved for a richer 
soil and a nlore genial climate. '-fhe taint 
of original sin rell1ains even "in then1 that 
are regenerated." J The spirit indeed ma) 
be willing, but the flesh is weak. In the 
'bosom of every true Christian, there is a 
never-ceasing conflict between two princi- 
ples dianletrically opposite to each other. 
His renewed heart ,vilIs to serve God, but 
his corrupt nature resists, and fights against 
lIis better inclinations. Such 'viII necessa- 
rily be his condition, so long as he remains 
a meluber of the church rniIitant. Nothing , 
,vi]] terminate the 'warfare, but a translation 
into the church triumphant. z 


J Art. ix. 


S " Quamdiu vivis, peccatum necesse est esse in mem- 
bris tuis. Saltern illi regnum auferatur, non fiat quod 
jubet.'" Aug. in Johan. Tract. 41. 



119 


St. Paul has left us upon record, for the 
edification of Christians in all ages, a very 
Jively and affecting description of this con- 
test between grace and nature. That ,'tclticll 
I do, [ allow not: for '(chat [ 'ttould, that do 
I not; hut ü.:lzat [ hate, that do [. If tlien 
J do tlzat 't
hich [uould not, I consent unto 
the lare, that it is good. Now then, it is llfJ 
'/lore I that do it, but sin t!tat (b
'elleth in me. 
For [ know that in '1ne, that is, in 'In!} flesh, 
dz;;elletlt 110 good thing: fOl' to 'a'ill is present 
'ü:itlt '1ne; but liow to perjol'nl that (x:/zicli i,
 
good [find 110t. For the good t!tat I u:ould, 
I do not; but the e'ciZ which I (.could not, 
that I do. Now, if [ do that [ would 110t.. it 
is no 11101'e I that do it, but sin that dz;;ellelh 
in me. [find then a law, that, u1len I ü:ould 
do good, e't'il is present with 'l1ze. F01' 1 
deliglLl in the law of God aftc1' the Ùra
ard' 
'lnan : but [ see anothel" law in 111!} mel12bel's, 
'il:arrillg against the law Ðf' 111,1/ lnind, and 



1'10 


bri/1,
.jll': /lU' i1lto cap/it'il! to Ihr laiL' nf she 
'l.:lIiell ì.ç ill 11I.!1 1/lt//lbc,..... 0 ü'/'ctclll'd /1/(111 


flldf 


Gill! c:-I,o -..ball tlt'lirel' IIlC /'01/1 t liC 


110".7 qr /I/is dfnth: 1 tIUl/lÅ; God tltrollr,.h 
.1("\11,'\ Christ our Lord. S 111,11 (6,'itll tit 
7Jlllld 1 111.'1..it'1 .
 Tnt tilt) la;:.' OJ God, but ;."it! 
i h,' .fir .,1, f 11 (' I (} i,,' l! $111. I 


'rhis intc.'rn:11 
trugn'l(", so 1;11 0 fÌ'onl b "'inn- 
" 
 ,
 


an argull1('nt - _l
,lÏUSt a rene'" cd will, is the 


I H\)I11. yii. 15. 'l ('um ('()
Ims è trrr:l. rt sJ)iritmn 
pns
id('.lInlis f:\ ('(\'1(\, ip
ì t('rm t't (\\'h.m SIII11US; rt in 
Ulroqul', ill n;t, ('I ('(\rpnr(' t spiritu. ut J)ci t O O/lll1t s wi, 
'
n1l1tc. Esl tuim infer C:Jnlt'ln f't 
piritlllll ('ollucr
J(iQ ct 
01 '-'\.1" , . . , 0 
d . .J t '\IIS 3th t:r
n
 
(' 111\"1('('111 q uouc1ml1a c lI
rt'ss'o: 
m
mOOl 
 . 
_ I ... ip
:t fa('Ì:nl1Us. Dum :-òpirÌru
 c,rlt'stia 
ut non tpl:\' YO lIUlh: 
t l ' . ' I '" . "^ t ('Hfi1:t t't I 
 rularia ('()ncupi:,cÌt: c.'t 
f' ll\1I13 qU
\'l1 l., ,. ... 
. . . , . t ' 1'
 i
t:t O})(, ct 3u'\ilio Dt,j 
1(lt'" p('tunu
 mll\('n
l' In c. r c. 1I , , 0 _ 
C"ou('ordi.ul1 h 'ri: ut. dulU 't in 
pÌi itu t't in (':!IfUt' \'ohlllta
 
. t " c n"
 C'II;t anima 
('fH'tur.'. 
])ci 
t'ntur qua" pa nun Uh\ 
C
 pri:in. cl
. Or.it. n'\I11Ìn. 



1 )1 


,"cry t, 'l, which Inosl tic 'i
i\'l"I.Y' prov '
 that 
it i" n'u '\\ cd. \\ hile 'l luau J i 'Ids hililS ,If 
a \\ilJing "la"l' to Satan, 01" while 11(' c.:ou- 
('cals :1. total iguorcll\e'\ of hi.... oWII hear1 
\lJ1<.1<<.'I' a lIe 'orous ext('rior; he fit 'Is lJothillg 
or th' contt"l u ,tw "11 OTac'\ anti Batllr' 
w h iell is so grievous a hu I'll '11 to C\' 'r.)' n"ll 
Christ ian. I It, has no ("olu'('pl ion or that 
fest Il'ssnl'
s and \lIH'a
inl'''s of IIlinti So l'l'd 
ingl.r dcscrih '<I hy th' OTcat. a postle' or tllC 
Uelltill'
. lla\ Ïug 11 'vcr '
rH'ril'n' 'd tit.. 
violcnt fcsi...taIH'(' wllich our dcpra\' ,tl h "uts 
Juak(' to the' will (J (
od, IH' has no ((lea of 
th' dil1icully of l'epcntancl' and .UIH'IHI. 
U1Cllt; 1101' do 'S h ' l> -Ii 'v ' 1 hat th 'I'(' is any 
Jll'l"(1 of divinp illHucn" to cuauJ' hilll to 
turn 1'1'<)111 the ('\ il of his \\'a'y
. 11 '11 .. h.. 
readily adopts tit. Pc.']abi.1n not iOB that 
r lWl1l'ul . , is alway
 in his OWII po\\'('r ; aJld 
scot1
 at tllt, sohcr d(' .j
ion uf our ehur 'h, 
"that tlu' condition ot luan is 
uch, that 



129l 


he cannot turn and prepare hinlself by Ins 
own natural strength, and good ,yorks, to 
faith and ca11ing upon God."1 But, as 
soon as he attenlpts the arduous task of a 
real and vital refornlation, a refornlation 
which is not confined to bare external 
decorum, but ,vhich affects even the very 
innlost thoughts of the heart; he then be- 
gins to find his ,veakness and inability, and 
is forced -at length by repeated Japses to 
acknowledge that all his sufficiency is of 
God. Along with this conviction, he no,v, 
for the first tinle, experiences the internal 
Christian conflict; he no\v perceives the 
fun meaning of St. Paul's confession; and, 
like him, is ready to exclain}, 0 lR.J1"etc/led 
1nan that I am ! who sltall deliver 1ne fronl 
tlte bod!} of this deat/,,? IJet hilll not, ho\v- 
ever, be discouraged, stiU less despair, on 


I Art. x. 



1
3 


account of the opposition, ,vhich corrupt 
nature Inakes to the influences of the Holy 
Spirit. Every Christian, whatever Inay be 
his rank in life or his progress in piety, has 
had the saIne enemy to contend ,vith. 
Let hÏ1n recollect the promise, III y grace is 
sufficient f01- thee,. nor let hinl doubt, but 
that he, which redeel1zcd Jacob f1
01n all e'cil, 
is equally ready to assist all who find their 
need of a Saviour. Strengthen ye the weak 
hands, and confirln the feeble knees ; say to 
thelll, that al'e of a fea1
ful heal't, Be strong, 
feal' not; behold, YOllr God u...ill cOllze 'l
.'Ítll- 
'fcngcance, even God with a 'j'CC01J1pCnSe ; lIe 
will come and S01:e YOll. ' 


Since probably tè\v Christians of the 
present day will venture to c]ainl even an 
equality \vith St. Paul in point of hoIiness, 


I Isaiah xxxv. 3. 



124 


nluch Jess a superiority over him, we may 
derive froll1 his n1emol'able confession 
another important truth: that it is vain for 
luan to drealn of attaining to perfection in 
this ,\
orId. Our yery best . deeds ,viII 
ever be l1Iinglcd ,vith sin; our very best 
,vishes will e"er be distracted ,vith reluc- 
tance; and our very best services ''lin eyer 
partake largely of corruption. Though SOllIe 
may strangely perycrt the lneaning of 
Scripture and falsely boast of an in1aginary 
perfection, the bun1ble disciple, ,vho by 
bitter experience has known the plague 
of his own heart, cannot be thus lall1entably 
deluded. ' Free indeed everyone, that is 


· ] John iii. 9. "Hæe hominibus," saJs St. Jerome, 
" sola perfeetio, si imperfeetos se esse noverint:' And St. 
Austin, cc N uIla remam,it infirmitas? Si non remansisset, 
sine peecato hie viver.emus. Quis autem audeat hoc 
dicere, nisi superbus? nisi miserieordialiberatoris indignus? 
nisi qui seipsum vult decipere, et in quo veritas lIon e
t ?" 



1
5 


born of God, must be from a resolute habit 
of sin, and frOID a predeternlÏned purpose 
of enjoying its pleasures ,vhenever they 
occur. But who shall cleanse himself fi'on1 
all his secret faults? \Vho is able to purify 
hilDself from offence in thought, in ,vord, 
and in deed? \Vho shall dare to pronounce 
himself clear from the culpability of omis- 
sion, as well as from the presunlptuousness 
of commission? If u:e say that u'e have 
'no sin, 'l
e decei-ce ourselves, aud t lie truth is 
110t in us. & 


1 cannot refrain from observing, 1t [ ') l V e more than 
once met with writers, who no less roundly than unac- 
countabJy have a!serted that the Calvinists hold the doc- 
trine of sinless perfection in tbose whom tll.elJ denominate 
the eled, The Calvinist! hold no such doctrine, however 
unwarrantable may be their speculations on the- abstrust" 
pO)nt3 of predestination and reprobation, 
I 1 Johni,i. 



l
ö 


Respecting the proper mode of carrying 
on the internal ,varfare of grace against na- 
ture, very excellent is the advice of Bp. 
flaB. " 'fherc are two men,

 says he, " in 
every regenerate breast, the old and the 
ncu 9 ; and of these, as they are ever plot- 
ting against each other, we luust take the 
better side, and labour that the new man by 
being 1110re ,vise in God luay outstrip the 
old. And ho\v shall that be done? If 'we 
would dispossess the strong lllan that keeps 
the house, our Saviour bids us bring in a 
stronger than he; and, if ,ve ,vould over- 
reach the subtilty of the old man, Jea the 
old serpent, bring in a stronger than he, 
even the Spirit of God, the God of 
· d ''1 
","IS Qrn. 


Nor is this observation excellent only In 



 Bp. HaIrs 'Yorks, p. 469. 



1
7 


the ,yay of advice; it affords also to every 
lnan a very useful test of his regeneracy_ 
If he find that t-a:o 111cn are perpetually at 
\var ,vithin him, and that the one gradually 
prevails over the other; he has no 
eason 
to doubt of the reality of his being a child 
of God, though he may never have felt any 
of those sudden and violent pangs of con- 
science \vhich son1e appear erroneously to 
esteelU the very essentials of regeneration. 
But, on the other hand, if he vic\v his be- 
loved 
elf ,vith a fond cOluplacency, and if 
he be totally unacquainted ,vith tho never- 
ceasing in\vard ,yarfare of a Christian; he 
then has but too sufficient grounds to be 
very doubtful of the goodness of his state. 
,- There are t,:.:O men in every }'egenerate 
breast." 'Vhere the workings of one alone 
are perceptible, and ,vhere consequently 
there is no strugglc, is it possible then, if 
Bp. Hall be a sound expositor, that the re- 



128 


newIng influence of the IIoJy Spirit can 
ever have been really experienced? 


Upon the ,vhole, ,ve may conclude 
that, in the regenerate, the vicious inclina- 
tions of corrupt nature are not so nluch 
eradicated, as Iuortified and subdued. A 
, 
new principle is instilled into the heart, clio. 
anletricaHy opposite to the affections of the 
flesh, an(
 ,vaging an eternal \var against 
theine It is vain to expect in this wodd, 
that duty ,viII ever be entirely unattended 
,vith pain. The carnal 1nilld is cnmity 
against God, }01' it is not subject to the Law 
of God, /leithel' indeed can be. 1 As a rC111- 
nant of the idolatrous Canaanites ,vas left 
in the n1Ìdst of the chi1dren of Israel, to be 
a thorn in their sides and a perpet ual snare 
to then1 ; S so are the evil affections of a 


1 Rom. viii. 7. 


J ucIg. ii. s. 



129 


_ Christian a constant source of trouble and 
vexation to hirn. Yet these lusts of the 
flesh are kept in a state of abject slavery 
to their ne\v nlaster; and, altbough tl1ey 
may be disposed occasionally to rebe], and, 
in fact, do never cordialIy submit to the 
yoke in] posed upon them, stiU are they daily 
constrained to bo\v beneath it, still are they 
daily losing SOll1e portion of their original 
strength and influence. .At times, indeed, 
as every believer kno,vs by ,voeful experi- 
ence, the house of Saul will a pp
ar to prevail 
against the house of David. Long and tedi- 
ous is the ,val' between then], a ,val' which 
can only terminate ,vith the extinction of 
one of the parties; Jet in the course of 
this spiritual struggle, it will be found that 
David waxes stronger and stronge1', and the 
llouse of SaltZ weaker and weaker. 1 Even 
natural causes will contribute their mite of 


& 2 Sa.m.iii. 1. 


I 



130 


co-operation ,vith the Spirit of grac{>. 
'Vhat at first ,vas indescribably irkson1c, 
,vin through habit gradualJy becon1e tolera- 
ble, if not palatable, even to our natural 
inclinations; ,,,hile the hope of a speedy 
victory and a glorious recompence will al. 
leviate the hardsbi ps of the Christian ,var- 
fare. l\Iean while the soul, through the 
assistance of the blessed Spirit, will be per- 
_petually advancing in the paths of holiness, 
and perpetually discovering ne,v beauty, 
and experiencing fresh pleasure in them. 
.A. delightful sense of sccuritjr, a cahn 
reliance upon the protection of God, and a 
consciousness of possessing an interest ill 
the 111erits of the Saviour, ,vill slnooth the 
rugged path of duty, and n1ake the rough 
places plain. The comnzllnion of saints, that 
golden though invisible chain which forn1s 
the connexion between the higher and the 
nether ,vodds, affords a never failing source 
of happiness to the believer. If a pagan 



131 


could exu1t in the Ullcel'tain prospect of 
rejoining his friends in the realms of bJiss)&, 
\vhat shall ,ve say of the certain vie\v of 
futurity held out to the Christian? In a 
fe\v, a very few years, death will be swaIIo'v- 
ed up in victory, the ,vicked win cease from 
troubling, and the ,veary ,viII be at rest. 
Those associates, in w honl he most delight. 
ed \vhiIe upon earth, ,vill soon rejoin him, 
pure, perfect, and sinless, in heaven. He is 
conscious that at present there is a some- 
thing in his nature, a bitter root of perverse- 
ness and corruption, ,vhich prevents him 
from attaining to that degree of holiness, 
that entire communion with God, beneath 
\vhich his soul is unable to rest satisfied. 
He delights in tlte law of' God a/tel' the in- 
u'al'd Inan, but he sees another law in hi, 


· Cicer. lomn. Sdp. 



132 


'Ìlzelnbe1'$ U'G1.1 o ing again$t the law of !tis 
1J2ind. 1 Hence arises a ,vish to quit this 
troublesome world and aU its vanities; a 
desire to be with Christ, which is far better. a 
Yet is this ,vish unal10yed ,vith discontent: 
The Christian can humbly resign himse]f, 
,vhether living or òying, to the good. plea... 


I ROID. vii. 22. 



 Did we feel the vanity of the world as practically as 
".e are ready to allow it theoreticaHy, this wish would 
alw3}.s be predominant in our hearts, though tempered, nQ 
doubt, with resignation to the will of heaven, and with 
humble gratitude for our deliverance from the merited 
penalties of sin. "Paulisp
r te crede subduci in montis 
ardui verticem celsiorem, speculari inde rerum infra ta 
jacentium facies; et oculi. in diversa porrectis, ipse a 
terrenis contactibus liber, fluctuantis mundi turbines intu- 
ere. Jam secuIi et ipse misereberis ; tuique admonitus, 
et plus in Deum gratus, majore lætitia quod evaseris gra- 
tulaberis. Cerlle to itinera Iatrmus clausa, maria ob.. 
I;essa prædonibus, cruento horrore castrorum bell a ubique- 
divisa: madet orbis mutuo 
aDguine; et bomicidium <:um 



133 


sure of his heavenly Father, ,vho kno,vs, 
infinitely better than hilTIself what is good 
and proper for him. Thus, se
ure under 
the protection of his God, and firmly rely- 
ing on the merits of his Saviour, he calm.. 
ly awaits the hour of his dissolution; ,vhen 
he shall be delivered from the bondage of 
corruption into the glorious liberty of the 
sons of God, when tears shan be ,viped 
away from every eye, and when the sorrows 
of time shaIl give place to the joys of 
eternity. 


admittunt singuli, crimen est; virtus vocatur cum publice 
gel'itur; impunitatem sceleribus acquirit, non innocentiæ 
ratio, sed sævitiæ magnitudo." Cyprian. ad Donat. The 
sum and substance of practical wisdom is condensed in this 
fihort apophthegm, The fashion of this world passel" 
away. 



CHAP. V. 


. -- .. 


The influence nf the Holy Spirit upon the Affection!. 


.. 
. 


\VHILE the blessed Spirit of God is en)- 
ployed in ilIun1Ïnati ng the understandings, 
and in converting the wills of his servants, 
he is also working a gradual change in 
their affections. lIe ,veans then} from the 
, 
gross and terrestrial objects of sense, he 
mortifies the ,vorks of the tlesh, and he 
draws up their minds to high and heavenly 
things.' He teaches them not merely 


, Art. xvii. 



135 


theoretically, but experinlental1y, the infi- 
nite disproportion bet\veen the pleasures of 
this ,,:-orld and the joy ,vhich is reserved 
for the faithful at the right hand of God. 
]) y slow and almost imperceptihle degrees, 
a surprising change takes place ,yithiu 
theln. 
'hey no longer feel any re1ish for 
those yanities, which the slaycs of dissipa- 
tion esteelll absolutely necessary for their 
happiness; and ,vhat at first 'vas resigned 
upon principles of duty and conscience, 
tho
gh with no smal1 reluctance, no,v 
ceases to excite a single ,vish, and is consi- 
dered with indifference or even aversion. 1 


· It By this new nature the ver)' natural motion of the 

oul, so taken, is obedience to God, and walking in the 
paths of righteousness; it can no more live in the habit 
:.md ways of sin, than a man can live under water. Sill i
 
not the Christian's e1emcnt; it is too 
ross for his rcnewed 
!ioul, as thc water is for his body. He may fall into it, but 
he cannot breathe in it; c:lnnot take delight and rontiml(> 



136 


The life of Christ is the beautiful ex- 
enlp]ar, which every l1lan under the guid- 
ance of the IfoJy Spirit endeayours to 
imitate. He finds himself uneasy in the 
society of those, lrhose daily conversation 
is the very reverse of that bright pattern
 
which ,vas once, and only once, exhibited 
before the eyes of sinful nlortality; and 
he flies with delight to con1panions, ,vhose 
habits and yie,vs are more congenial ,vith 


to live in it: but his delight is in the law of the Lord. 
That is the walk, that his soul refreshes itself in; he loves 
it entirely, and loves it most, when it most crosses the re.. 
mainders of corruption that are in him; he bends the 
strength of his soul to please God, and aims wholly at that. 
It takes up his thoughts 
arly and late; he hath no other 
purpose in his being and living: but only to hOllour his 
Lord, that is, to live to righteousness. He cloth not make 
a by-work of it, a stud.y for bis spare hours; no, il is his 
main business, his aiL" Abp. Leighton's Works, Vol. i. 


p. 40
. 



137 


his o,vn. 'StiIJ, whenever there is even a 
faint hope only of effecting a refQ.nnation, 
he seeks not tnorosely to shun the presence 
of the thoughtless and the dissipated. 1 
Here his business is to ,vatch for opportu- 
nities of usefulness; to avoid the appear- 
ance of unnecessary rigour; and to diffuse 
the practice of holiness, rather by occasion- 
al hints and general remarks, than by 
petulant reproof and pointed allusion. "\Ve 
are all, ho\vever absurd it n1ay be, more 
subject to the influence of pride and seJf- 
conceit, than perhaps of any other species 
of mental criminality. It is the particular 


· '07rOU 7rÀe.wv X07rO), 7(OÀU XEg
O). K
Àou; P.
eY)T
; E!X1J 
4-' À ?1ç, X
g'; ero. f)'JX eerTIV. f-L"ÀÀOV TOU, ÀO'P.OT
goU) E'I ?rgctOT1jT'l 
Ú7rOT
ererE. O'} 7T
V Tg
Vf-Lct Tl1 ctUT'!' Ep.7rÀaerTgo/ 6egct7rWETOlI. 
Tou, 7TOlgo
uerp.ou; ep.ßgoXOl'f 7TOlve. fþgoll'P.O; ï'n'ou 00; o<þ.; 'v 
eL7rOlCT.II, X:t' (,(X=gOl.lJ) werE' 'll'/:g'
TEg". 19na.t. Epist. ad 
Polycarp. 



138 


aill1 of Christial?ity to eradicate this lnastcr 
passion of the soul; and all, ,,?ho have had 
the least experience of their own hearts, 
,viII readily alJ(HV the difficulty of the ,vork. 
If such be the confession of c\yery humble, 
self-denying be1ie\-cr, with ,vhat a tren1eGd- 
ous sway must the sin of pride rule in the 
breasts of the carnal and wor1d]Y-ll1inded! 
1\Ien never nnlch relish the being driven to 
their duty. Personal censure, and ill-tin1ed 
advice, always COllYCY an idea of superio- 
rity, and as such wiU ahvays give offence. 
Inlprcssed with the truth of these rcruarks, 
the Christian ,viU endeavour to unite pru- 
dence with his zea1. I-Ie \viII strive rather 
to lead n1cn into the paths of sah-ation, 
than to compel then1 to COlne in. 'fhough 
evcr upon the \yatch to do good, he will 
temper his watchfuJness with judgnlcnt. 
lIe 'viII study to relTIOye a11 appearancc of 
design and pren1cditation from what be 
says. fIe \vill scck to conci1iatc the aflèc- 



139 


tions of those ,vith ,vhom he converses. 
He ,viU resolutely tUfn aside from every 
tClnptation to sarcasm and ridicule, as wen 
knowing that the applause, ,vhich lnight 
perhaps be procured by his wit, would be 
hut a poor recolnpcnse for the dinlinution, 
probably the loss, of his influence over an 
ilnlDortal soul. lIe ,vill strive, in short, to 
inculcatc the nla
inls of his religion by 
exarnple, as well as by precept. 'Vith 
these yicws, and these resolution
, he ,viU 
enter into company, and thus coo\yert cven 
an ordinary visit into a plan for pro111oting 
the glory of God. 


The itnitation, then, of Christ constitutes 
the principal study of those, who are in- 
fluenced by the Holy Ghost. 'Vhatsocvcr 
action they arc about to perf OrIn, their 
first question is, ,,,hether Christ ,vould ha,.e 
performed it, bad he been in tbeir situation: 



140 


and it is their constant endeavour to regu- 
late, not only their words, but their very 
thoughts, in a ,yay resembling that, in 
which they have reason to conceive that he 
regulated his. Their ordinary em ploy- 
Inents, their alTIUSements, their choice of 
friends, nay even the n10st common trans- 
actions of their lives, ,viII be brought to 
the same test. They contemplate the 
heavenly meekness of Christ: and labour 
to transfuse his spirit into their o,vn hearts. 
They viev{ his immaculate purity; and 
strive 'with yet greater earnestness to put 
off the old man with his lusts. They be. 
hold his ,vonderful and disinterested love 
for mankind, displayed in a life of active be- 
nevolence and in a death fun of pain and 
torment; they hear him praying for his 
murderers, and see him anxiousJy concerned 
for the ,velfare of his friends even ,vhen 
.the prospect of his own bitter suffer- 



141 


lUgS ,vas directly before his eyes: and, 
fun of these thoughts, they learn to 
abhor the narrow spirit of selfishness, and 
feel their souls alive both tt> the tern poral 
and the eternal interests of all their 
brethren. They are taught by his blessed 
exam pIe to love their enemies, to bless those 
that hate them, and to pray for those that 
despitefully use theln and persecute them. 


Thus endeavouring to tread in the steps 
of their divine nlaster, they gradually 
acquire a greater relish for heavenly enjoy- 
ments, and find themselves elevated above 
the fleeting pleasures of this transitory 
world. The amiable mildness and s,veet 
serenity of the new disposition, ,vhich has 
been implant
d in them, is so conspicuous, 
that it cannot but be perceived even by 
those whose hearts are unaffected. It is 
true, that the man, ,vho is naturaJIyof a 



14
 


harsh and rugged ten1per, will never ",ho11y 
attain t.:> the gentleness of those ChrIstians, 
'whose affections have been originally cast 
in a different and 1110re beautiful 111ould. 
SOinething of the old leaven ,viII yet re.. 
111ain, nor can it ever be totalJy rcrnovcd 
except by the hand, of death. Yet ho\v 
pJeasi t lg is it to behold asperities gradually 
'worn away, and, in direct opposition to the 
ordinary course of lllere nature, a 111ild and 
placid old age succeeding to a nlorose and 
irritable n1anhood. Such wi]) crer be the 
influence of real Christianity upon aU t:lC 
nlore unkindly passions of tbe hU111an soul. 
Avarice will beCOllIC liberality; unclean- 
ness, purity; and selfishness, a generous 
d
sire of prolnoting the happine
s of aU 
ll1ankintl. Old t/zings aloe passed au:ay; be- 
llold all things arc bccornc new. 


" Gire n1C," says the eloquent Lactan.. 



143 


tius, "a man of a passionate, abusiv
, 
headstrong, disposition; with a fe\v only 
of the words of God, I will make him gen- 
tle as a lau)b. Give me a greedy, avari. 
cious, tenacious, ,vretch; and I ,viII teach 
hin1 to distribute his riches with a liberal 
and unsparing hand. Give n1e a cruel, 
and blood-thirsty monster; and all his 
rage shall be changed into true benignit.Y. 
Give me a man addicted to injustice, full of 
ignorance, and immersed ill wickedness; 
he shaH soon become just, prudent, and in- 
nocent. In the single laver of regenera- 
tion, he shall he cleansed fron1 .all his 
malignity."1 


Is it possible for a change like this to be 
effected by mere human means? The laws 


I Lnct. In"t. J. ii. c. l2ô. 



144 


of a country may iudeed operate so far as 
to prevc,nt open violence, but the Ilo]y 
Spirit of God is alone able to reach the 
soul. 'fhe artificial restraints of politeness 
are but a poor, a servile, imitation of that 
true urbanity of manners, that constant 
desire of being serviceable to all around us, 
,yhich nothing but the gospel of Christ can 
teach. Pursue the man of the world into his 
retirell1ents; and the sn1Ïling insinuating 
courtier will frequently be 11letanlorphosed 
into tbe negligent and cruel husband, or the 
Ilarsh an
 tyrannjcal lllaster. IIis natural 
temper, no,v no longer under any restraint, 
breaks out ,,,ith redoubled violence, and 
yents itself on those who are unbappily 
subjected to his po,ver. 'Yide1y different 
is the conduct of the Christian. Acting 
frolD a higher principle, and experiencing 
the changing influence of the Spirit in the 
ver.y inmost rece
ses of his heart, he is uni- 



]45 


form and consist
nt at aU time
 and in aU 
places. I-Je is the saine character. in pri- 
vate and in public, at hOlne and abroad. 
His politeness is the politeness of the 
heart, not the spurious offspring of a studi- 
ed and e]aborate refille1l1ent. 


It is striking to observe the different 
effects of religion and irreligion on pprsons, 
who are naturally of very opposite disposi- 
tions. 


The originally mild and gentle Nero ,vas 
soon corrupted by the channs of despotism 
and the flattery of sycophants. Proceed. 
ing fron1 bad to \vorse, he becalue ultimate- 
ly one of the bloodiest tyrants upon record; 
the terror and aversion of his ensla\'ed sub- 
jects; the 11lurderer of his brothers, his wives, 
and his Inuther; and the bitter persecutor 
of Christianity. 


K 



146 


The Ï1npetuous, blood-thirsty, and unre- 
lenting Saul, on the contrary, the furious 
opposer of the Gospel, and the determined 
ene01Y of the l\Iessiah, ,vas changed into the 
- an)iab1e, fervent, and affectionate, apostle, 
ready to bear aU hardships, and to submit to 
all the ,vayward and petulant humours both 
of Jew aud of Gentile, in order that he might 
gain some to the cause of his Lord. Read 
that beautÌfuI specimen of the conciliatory, 
bis epistle to Philen10n. rre have great joy 
and consolation in thy love, because the bowels 
of the saints are refreshed by thee, brother. 
lYherifol'e, though I might be much bold in 
Christ to enjoin thee that which is convenient, 
yet f01' Io
'e' s sake 1 rather beseech thee, 
bei'J1g such an one as Paul tlte aged, and norø 
also a p1-'isoner of Jesus Christ. I beseech 
thee for my son OnesimllS, 'li,hOln I have be.. 
gotten in my bonds; which in time past was. 
to thee unprofitable, but now prqfitable to Illee. 
and to me; ''If)hOln I hare sellt again : thou 



147 


therefore reCClve hi'in, that 2S, 'Jnuze own 
bo'[;.;'els : whom 1 would hare 1
etailled with me, 
tl,at in tlly stead he might have ministel'ed 
'Unto me in the bonds of the gospel. Bllt 
without thy 'lnind would I do notlliug; that 
thy benefit should not be as it were of neces- 
:sity, but willingly. 'Vho would ever ha'
e 
supposed, that this delicate and conde- 
scending address could have proceeded from 
the pen of the haughty and implacable 
Saul? 'Vhat an astonishing difference be- 
t\veen the mild yet dignified apostle, and 
the relentless bigot, breathing out threaten- 
ings and slaughter against the disciples, 
making lzavoc if the ChUl
ch, entering into 
e"cery hOllse, and haling men and women to 
prison 1 


'Vhence then could arise this difference, 
as singular as it is palpable, except from 
the opposite influences of grace and nature, 
the one gradually correcting the malignant 



148 


propensities of the hUlTIan heart, the other 
cherishing and fostering thelTI? lIad the 
black Jist of his future crin1es been propheti- 
caHy displayed before the eyes of the youth- 
ful Nero, he ,,,"ould have been inclined to 
ask, in the \vords of IIazaeJ, Am I a dog, 
t!tat I s/tould do these t/zings ? Such often 
is the ]anguagc of modern Infidelity; but 
b'y their fruits are the disciples of Christ 
best distinguished froln the upholders of 
the empire of Satan. 


The dignity of human nature; the eternal 
fitness of things; the nloral sense; the 
beauty of virtue, and the deforn1Ïty of vice; 
the tendency of the heart to the one, and 
its repugnance to the other; the superiority 
of philosophy o\'er Christianity; the chanTIs 
of universal philanthropy and disinterested 
benevolence: ha\'c in our own melTIOry 
been repeatedly and triumphantly brought 
forward. The God of Israel has been Ín- 



149 


suIted to his face; his statutes, and his ordi- 
nances, have been ridiculed; the person of 
his Son has been vilified; the operations of 
his Holy Spirit have been held up, as a mad 
enthusiasn1; and Christianity has been tra- 
duced, as the artfullnachination of a design- 
ing inlpostor. 'Ve have been infornled that, 
,vhen philosophy should take the lead, a ne\v ' 
ànd happier ord
r of things would succeed 
to the present. Elnanci pated from the 
!hackles of pricstcraft and tyranny, human 
reason would ex panel itself to its full gro\vth, 
and infallibly conduct us to peace, to love, 
and to happiness. Religion, the bugbear 
of deluded mortals, would hiùe her dimi- 
nished head; prejudices would vanish 
froln off the face of the earth; cruelty 
and dC'spotis111 would become extinct ,vith 
priests and kings; and the infinite perfecti- 
bility of our nature \vould COlumence. 
'Vars ,vou]d be no more heard of; and 
mankind would be one large falnily, united 



150 


by the ties of a generous affection, and 
actuated by one COlnmon principle of mu- 
tual Ï1nprovelnent. Thus conferring and 
receiving happiness, 'we should behold the 
1'ast globe itself gradually converted into a 
terrestrial paradise. 


Such vain drean1s of se]f-intitled philoso- 
phers have at length received a tremendous 
confutation. 'Ve have seen realized, in 
these last days, the theory of a people 
,vithout prince, without priest, and \vithout 
religion. 'Ve have seen the Gospel with- 
drawn froin a nation, which had long either 
perverted its doctrines, or scoffed at its 
truths. \lVe have seen that nation formally 
cast off the authority of God. We have 
seen her left to legislate, and ffaIlle fantastic 
codes of natural religion, for herself. It 
ahnost appears as if God had wisely per.. 
Initted the experiment to be tried, in order 
that lllan ll1ight be taken in his own foUy, 



151 


that the different effects of Christianity and 
of unbelief Inight be placed in the D10st 
striking point of view, and that the pride of 
Infidelity nlight be for ever humbled in the 
dust. The religion of God, and the religion 
of Satan, have been palpably contrasted 
together. They have both equally pron1iscd 
the blessings of philanthropy, universal 
charity, and diffusive benevolence; they 
have boih equally declared the happiness 
of man to be their object; and they have 
both equal1y held out the prospect of alnc- 
liorating our nature, and of eradicating 
the seeds of ignorance, cruelty, and corrup- 
tion. 


That the Gospel has most faithfu1Jy per- 
formed its pron1Îse, the comfortable expe- 
rience of every sincere believer wiU joyfully 
acknowledge. 1\Iany indeed there are, ,vho, 
while they bear the name of Christians, are 
totally unacquainted ,vith the power of 



15
 


their di, ine religion. But for their crinles 
the gost>l'I is in no wise an
werah}e. Chris.. 
tianity is with the[l1 a geographi("al, not a 
descriptive, 31)pellation. In strict propri.. 
ety of sppech, they are no l110re Christians, 
than the unconverted sa,'ages, who roam 
through .the trackless df''3crts of A nlerica. 
'fhe sanle reason' equally serves to prove the 
truth of this assertion, and to show ho\v 
little Christianity is bound to answer for 
their rnisconduct. lie is not a Jew u'lâch 
is one O!ltlcardl.1J; neither is that circumci- 
sion u1iÎch i'i outiJ:ard in the fie:-.h: bllt lie is 
a J
''l;) tclziclt i:s one i1rti:al'dly ; and circum- 
cision i
 that of the heart, ill tIle spil'it
 and 
not ill the !titer; 'l{:!lOse p1'aise is not oj met}, 
but of God. 1 


'Ve may no\v a...k, in what manner ha! 
Infiddity kept ller pronÜ
e to her deluded 


I Rom. ii. 28. 



153 


fol1o,vers? She has opened the flood gates 
of Jicentiousncss and imnlorality; she has 
deified lust, pride, and b]asphenlY; she has 
encouraged an indiscriminate cruelty and 
thirst of blood; she has tranlplt:d upon 
those rights of 111an, ,vhich she affected to 
vindicate; and she has endeavoured to tear 
away the _only remaining conlfort of the 
wretched, the hope of speedily exchanging 
the nliseries of this life for the happiness òf 
a better. Such are the fruits of high-vault.. 
ing infidelity. 


'rhc effect, indf'ed, ,vhich this sin of sins 
produces upon the mind, is precisely the 
re\'erse of that change of heart, ,vhich in 
Scripture is t11ctaphorical1y termed 1'egel1e- 
ration. An o\'cnv('C'ning pride, a hatred of 
all restraints, a conten}pt of those milder 
virtues in which Christianity so particularly 
delights, arc the usual characteristics of the 
anarch and the deist. 'Vhcre did we ever 



154 


behold the infidel exhibiting any of those 
fruits of the Spirit, w
ich are the lnarks, 
the exclusive marks, of those that have been 
born again? The levity, ,vith which one of 
the most celebrated champions of deisn1 is 
said to have met death, even if the account 
be true, is surely very different from the 
calm serenity, the filial gratitude, and the 
trembling confidence, of an expiring Chris- 
tian. 'Vhen l\Ir. Hun1e ,vas dra,ving near 
to that awful crisis, ,vhich, one ,vould think, 
even the best of men could not behold with 
indifference, how did he em ploy the fe,v last 
,veeks of a fleeting existence? lIe read Lu- 
cian, played at whist, and amused hill1SeJf 
with anticipating the conversation ,vhich 
was to take place between himself and Cha- 
ron! "Drollery'" says Bishop I-Iorne, "in 
such circumstances, is- neither more nor less 
than 


Moody madness, laughing wild 
Amid 
everest woe. 



155 


,V ould 'we kno,v the baneful and pestilen- 
tial influences of false philosophy on the 
human heart, ,ve need only contemplate 
them in this most deplorable instance of 
lVIr. Hunle." Such ,vas the man, ,\ hon1 his 
biographer considers, " both in his life-time, 
and since his death, as approaching as near- 
]y to the idea of a perfectly 7
'ise and virtu- 
ous "nan, as perhaps the nature of human 
frailty ,viJI permit!" 


Let us no,v view a Christian's anticipation 
of death. 


TVatclt tllOU in all things, endure a.iflietions, 
do the work of an evangelist, make full Jlroof 
of thy ministry. FOI- I aTn now ready to he 
offered, and tile tÙne of my departure is at 
hand. I ha-ce fought a goodfight, I !lave 
finished 'my course, I have kept the faith: 
henceforth thc1-C is laid up for 'J12e a crown of 
righteousness, '[i:/zich the Lord, the righteous 



156 


judge, shall give me at that day; and not to 
me OJl
lJ, but unto ail tltem tltat love hi$ ap- 
pearing. 1 


In this last address of the aged Paul to 
l1Ïs belo\'ed son Tirnothy, when the pros- 
pect of a speedy dissolution was full before 
bilu, the iuarks of a regenerate and sancti- 
fied beli
ver must be evident 
\'{'n to the 
most careless ob:,erver. "Vhile the Apostle 
joyfuIly antici pätf'S the pronlis\"d reward, and 
looks forward with eagerness to that happy 
day, when corru ptible shaH put on incor- 
ruption, and when IBortal shall put on im- 
, 
xnortality; his affectionate heart stiU yearns 
to,vards tho
e friends whonl he is about 
to ]eave behind him, and aln10st his last 
thoughts are enlployed in pointing out the 
most effectual Ineans of diffusing Christian 
knowledge. 


I 
 Tim. iv. 5. 



157 


Infidelity has of ]ate years displayed a 
zeal in propagating her sentiments, but lit- 
tle inferior to that of primitive Christianity: 
yet, in the Inidst of her labours, she has 
sho,vn, in a most striking 
1anner, the 
difference of the spirit, with which the 
regener_ate and the unregenerate are actu- 
ated. 


The n1artyr Stephen, ]n in1Ïtation of his 
blessed Lord, spent his last breath in inter- 
cediBg for his n1urderers. Prayers ,vere the 
50le arms of the church of Ghrist, agreeably 
to his express prohibition of atten1pting to 
diffuse the gospel by violence; and never 
did the papists err more completely, than 
when they caned in the secular arm. 


But what is the treahnent, ,vhich all the 
opponents of Infidelity Inust expect, not- 
withstanding her perpetual appeal to tole- 
ration, candour, liberality, and humanity? 



158 


One of her ,varlnest adherents desired only 
"to die on a heap of Christians imlnolated 
at his feet ;JJ Voltaire proposed, in case his 
antichristian plan should succeed, to sb'an- 
gle the last Jesuit with the bo,vels of the 
last Jansenist; a regal apostate avo,ved, 
that Infide]ity could ne\'er be established,. . 
except by the exertion of a superior force; 
and d'Alembert expressed a ,vish not un. 
,vorthy even of a Nero, a wish to see a 
,vhole nation exterminated, simply because 
they.professed the Christian religion. 1 ' 


The meek and subn1Îssive spirit of reg ene- 
ration prompted the apostle to forbid, even 
upon pain of damnation, aU resistance to 
the lawfully constituted powers of govern- 
Inent. He rightly judged, that self-vindi- 
cation ,vas inconsistent with the character 
of hin), ,vho has been born again; of hin), 


· Harmel, l\fem. of Jacobinism. 



159 


,vho expects his portion, not in this world, 
but in the next. His precepts... ,vere faith.. 
funy obeyed by the primitive Christians; 
and there is not a single instance upon re.. 
cord of any resistance being made even to 
the bloodiest persecutions of the heathen 
eluperors. 


This ]lun1iJity and gentleness, Infidelity 
treats ,vith the lTIOst sovereign contelnpt; 
she spurns at the idea of a meek anq. con.. 
tented obedience, and she values 110t the 
bJessing of a quiet spirit. U n]ike that 
evangelical charity, ,vhich seeketh not Iter 
own, she clamorous]y demands her rights, 
and preaches the legality of open insurrec.. 
tion and rebellion. The gospel reverently 
looks up to God, as the sole fountain of 
po,ver, both civil and ecclesiastical; but 
In fi c!elity proudly scoffs at the degrading 
sentiment, and confers upon tbe popuJace 
the prerogative of Jehovah. 



160 


I have dwelt the more largely upon the 
spirit of Infidelity, in order that it might 
fonn the ll10re striking contrast to that of 
a regenerate Christian under the sancti(y- 
ing influence of the Iloly Spirit. In a 
l}ainting, light appears more vivid from 
being placed in the vicinity of darkness; 
and beauty possesses a tenfold degree of 
attraction in the neighbourhood of de... 
fOfluity. It is inlpossible to a\'oid seeing 
the difference betwecn the real believer, and 
the nlan who 11lakes tbis world his god. 
Setting aside aU discrepancies of opinion, 
,vhn is there, that. does not perceive tile won- 
derful dissimilarity between the character 
of Paul, and that of a flu ale or a Voltaire? 
'Vho can avoid acknowledging that some 
important change must ha,re taken place 
in the one, of which the others were totaJly 
ignorant? There ,vas a tinle when the great 
apostle of the gentiles, an apostle, 111oreover, 
, well versed in the rnost poJite literature of the 



. 


161 


age, hated, with "\T oltaire, the very nalne of 
Christ; and ,vould gladly, ,vith d'l\leillhert, 
})ave externÜnated, at a single blow, the 
,vhole 111u1titude of the faithful. 'Vhat then 
can it be, which hath Blade hin1 to differ? 
Let us hUlnbly confess, or rather let the 
A postle hilllself confess, that it tcas God, 
who ?lorked in 11Ùn both to will and to do of 
his good pleasure. "\Vithout the converting 
and sanctifying grace of the Holy Ghost, 
Paul would for ever have reluained dead in 
trespa
ses and sins. 


In fine, to use the emphatic language of 
Scripture, the regenerate are the te1nple of 
the blessed Spirit, built upon the __foundation 
of the apostles and prophets, Jesus C/zrist 
being tlte chief corner stone. I God hilnsclf 
condescends to dwell ,vithin then]; 
 and, 


· Ephesians, ii. 20. 
7. I Cor. iii. 16. 2 Tim. i. 14. 1 John iv. 12. IS. 16. 
L 



16
 


like the Shechinah in his magnificent hous
 
at J erusalenl, sanctifies, iHllminates, and 
directs then).1 'Vhat the soul is to the 
body, the IIo]y Spirit is to the Church. 
By his po,verful agency, its members are 
not only enlightened and actuated indivi- 
dua]]y; but, like the several parts of the 
natural body, they are connected and he]t! 
together in spiritual peace, order, union, 
and harmony. s 


. 


· OUOEV ;.,<<vGotIlE. 'TOV KU
IOV, a^^OL xal T<< X
U?rTa 
fJ-:A)V 
!')'')'uç <<UTCf ECT'TJI/. n<<IITCC ouv 7rOIWfJ-EII cÅJ) <<UTOU !V 
fJ-jy 
xaTOlXOUIITO)', iv<< wp.ev <<U'TOU V<<OI, XOL' aUToç 1'1 III 
p.1Y 6EO, 

p.WV, Ó7r!
 XOLI !CTTIY XOLI 
OLIIYJCTETal 7r
O 7r
OCT(JJ7rOU 
p.WV !E 
cÅJ)/ 
'XC(jwç a')'O/.'lfwp.EII aUT')V. Ignat. Epist. ad Epbes. 
Conversemur quasi Dei templa, ut Deum in nobis con- 
stet habitare. Nee sit degener actus noster a Spiritu, ut 
qui cælestes et spirituales esse cæpimus, nOlI nisi spiri- 
tualia et cælestia cogitemus et agamus. Cyprian. de Orate 
Domin. 


· Barrow's \V orks. Vol. ii. p. 505. 



163 


Such, and so great, are the privileges and 
endowlnents of a Christian. However those, 
that sit in the chair of the scorner, may 
mock at the counsel of God, and deride 
the operations of his Holy Spirit; they, 
,vho have experienced the benefit of his 
influence, thankfully acknowledge the great- 
ness of his power in the con \Tcrsion and 
sanctification of a iinner. They kno,v, in 
\Vh0111 they have believed.. If God be for 
them, 'who can be against them? In all things 
they are 'f/w't'e than conquerors through hirn 
that loved theln. 


Blessed be God, even in these latter days 
of the Christian Church, his ann is not 
shortened. lIe is stiH both able and willing 
to save all, ,vho come to hirl1 in his Son's 
name. His promises yet receive their ac- 
complishnlent, nor can one jot or one tittle 
of his word fail. As many as are led by the 
Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For 



164 


ye ha"ce not "
cei'ced the spirit of bondage 
again to fear; but ye have received the spi- 
l'tt oj' adoption, whereby lce cry, Abba, Father. 
The Spirit itself bearing witness with our 
- spirit, tltat we are the children of God: and, 
if children, then heirs; heir:, of God, and 
joint-heirs with Christ. Fo'/" 1 aln persuaded 
that neither death, n01
 life, nor angels, nor 
pl'incipalities, nor powers, n01' things pr
sent, 
nor things to.come, nor height, 1101' depth, nor 
any other creature, shall be able to separate 
llS from the lo'ce qf God, which is in Christ 
J eSllS our Lord. I 


I Rom. viii. 14.38. 



CI-IAPTER VI. 


... ... 


The l-lol!! Spirit, a Conifol.ter, and all Intercessor. 


... - 


"rUE Christian, who ha
 been accustomed 
to observe the workings of his heart, ,veIl 
'knows that there are times, in which his 
views of a better world are greatly darken- 
ed and obscured. lIe is deprived of that 
comfortable reliance on the fatnerly good- 
ness of God, \vhich once constituted his 
greatest joy and his highest pri vilege. His 
love to\vards his Saviour appears to be 

trangely diIninished; and, instead of that 
fervent affection which once he experienced, 
he feels nothing but a cold and painful 
indifference. I-Ie sees others rejoicing in 
the paths - of hoJiness, and full of that 



166 


peace which passed1 an understanding; 
\vhile his better prospects are fearfully 
clouded, and a deep glooln overhangs his 
dejected spirits. Scri pture, instead of 
offering hin1 consolation, presents only a 
Inenacing aspect; and he dwells, with an 
oppressive n1clancholy, upon those passages, 
which contain the severe denunciations of 
an offended God against hardened and in1- 
penitent sinners. Ordinances, that once 
secn1ed to bring an heaven upon his ear, 
now delight no more; and, though he 
sedulously frequents then), he appears to 
hinlself to have, ai it ,vere, no interest in 
them. The precious dew of God's IIoly 
Spi1:it descends upon aU aro
nd him; 
, while he alone, like Gideon's fleece, ren1ains 
unaltered. Public and private devotion 
are eq uaHy inefficacious; and even the 
social conversation of a dear and religious 
friend. no longer produces its ,vonted effect. 
\tVeary of hin1self and sick of the ,vorld, 
bewailing the deadness of his own heart, 



167 


and mourning for the loss of those better 
days which once he knew, he is read.r to 
exclaim, 0 tliat I had 'liJings like a dO"L'C, for 
thtn 'It'ollÜl I flee au'ay and be at I'est. I 


Such appears' frequently to have been 
the case with that favoured servant of 
God, the holy Psahnist of Israel. 0 
Lord, rebuke me not in thy wrath, nez- 
tIler chasten me in thy hot displeasure. For 
thine arrows stick fast in me, and thy hand 


· "In spiritual trials, that are the sharpest and most 
fiery of all, when the furnace is within a man, when God 
cloth not only shut up his loving kindness from its feeling, 
but seems to shut it up ill hot displeasure, when he writes 
bitter things against it: yet then to depend upon him, and 
wait for his salvation, this is not only a true, but a strong, 
and very refined faith indeed, and the more he smites, 
the more to cleave to him. \Vell might he say, IV/ten I 
am tried, I shall corne forth as gold. 'Yho could say 
that word, Though he slall me, !Jet will I trust in him 
 
though 1 saw, as it were, his haud lifted up to destroy me, 
yet from that 
ame hand would I expect salvation." Abp. 
Leighton's Comment. 011 1 Pet. 1-7. 



16R 


I 
prc.ssflh me sore. There is no soundness in 
my flesh, beclluse of thine anger; neither is 
there any 'I'est in my bones, because of my sin. 
For lninc iniquities are gone over nÛne head; 
as a heavy úurden, they are too hea1.Y for 
rJle. lain trouúled, I am bowcd dou:n 
greatly, I go mourning all the day long. I I 
am fceble and sore broken
. . I have roared by 
reason oj' the disquietness of my heart. 
L01'd, all nZH desire is before thee; and my 
gl'oanil1g is not hid }:"OllZ thee. 1..,[y lzeart 
pallteth, l1l!1 strengtlt faileth me; as jar the 
ligllt oj' mine eyes, it also it'; gone fr01n 'Ine. 1 


I n another psalm he exclaims; my lear.r.; 
hat'e been my meat day and night, while tlley 
contiullally say unto me, Where is thy God? 
Ifhen I re1ne1nber these things, I pour out 
1ny soul Ùt 'lne: for I had gone with the 
rnultitude, I went 'a'ith theln to the hOllse of 
God, 'ë1.:ith the'coice if joy and praise, (i)itlt 


I Psalm xxxviii. 



169 


tlte .11111ltitude thai kept holy-day. N otwith- 
standing this use of outward llleans, the heart 
of the prophet could still find no comfort; 
'Phy al.t thou cast dO'll'/l, 0 rny soul? and why . 
art tholt disquieted 'a:itlzin lne ? Deep calleth 
unto deep at the nóise of the {fater-spouts; 
all thy '{t'aves and t1lY billou's are gone ove'r 
Jne. In this melancholy situation, David 
If)oks up for help to hinl, from ,vhonl alone 
help can conlee 0 lny soul, hope tltou ill, 
God, for 1 uill yet pl'aise him, 'l1:ho is the 
health qf 1JlY countenance and 'lilY God. I 


"\Vhile the Christian labours under this 
depression of spirits, the subtle enemy of 
.nlankind is busily elnploycd in harassing 
and distracting his soul. A thousand au:- 
xious doubts and fears, are suggested to 
hiln. I-lis fornler happy conlmunion ,vith 
God appears only like a delusion; and he 
is telnpted to suspect, that he never knew 


I Psalm xlii. 


, 



170 


\vhat real. religion is. An those argunlcnts 
and evidences, from which he once con- 
cluded that he ,vas at peace ,vith Christ, no 
longer retain their former efficacy, but 

eeln to have vanished into empty aIr. 
'Vhile he thus suffe1's tlte terrors oj' God 
with a troubled mind; he i
 almost induced 
to believe, that the 1\10st High hath forgot- 
ten to be gracious, and hath for ever shut 
up the bowels of his COIn passion against 
hIm. I 


· There are some very useful observations on this sub- 
ject, in a sermon by the late Bp. Horne, intitled, The 
blessillg of a clzeeifullwart. He judicious1y refers the 
gloom, \\ hich I have been describing, ultimately to a kind 
of infidelity, a timorous distrust of God's promise!. 
Something of that sort will generally be found at the bot- 
tom of religious despondency, insomuch that every 
Christian has great reason daily to pray, Lord, I believe, 
help t!Wit mine unbelief. See also Bp. Reynolds' works, 
p. 458. and Doddridge's Rise and Progress of Religion, 
chap. xxiv. from which very valuable treatise many of the, 
following observations are borrowf:d. 


/ 



171 


Persons In this unconlfortable state 
ought first to consider, whether their case 
does not require the physician rather than 
the divine. It is almost superfluous to 
observe, \vhat has been already so often 
observed, how \vonderful a connexion there 
is between the soul and the body. A long 
train of nervous affections ,viII genera]} y 
produce, if I [nay use the luetaphor, a kind 
of enervation of the mind. Its faculties 
will lose their elasticity; and a deep depres- 
sion of spirits \viU take place of that com- 
fort and serenity, \vhich it is the direct ten- 
denc.Y of Christianity to inspire. Thanks 
be to God, our religion is not a 
ystem of 
gloomy ob!5ervances, or a succession of rites 
which fIeezc the soul with horror, and teach 
it to consider the beneficent Creator in the 
ligh t of a sanguinary and unrelenting 
demon. The Gospel contains glad news of 
great salvation to lost ßlankind; and, as 
such, ought to convey to us sensations of 
pleasure, not of sorrow and meJa nC}ll;}j7 . 



17
 


If, therefore, disorder be the sole cause of 
this painful dejection, a mere natural mala- 
dy must be relnedied by natural llleans; for 
,ve have no right to expect that God should 
interfere ,vith a miracle, in order to prevent 
a bodily distemper frolD producing its ordi- 
nary effect upon the mind. 


But, ,vhere the corporeal frame is in a state 
of perfect good health, and where every 
nerve is strung up to its proper pitch, if 
this painful sense of alienation from G
d, 
so emphatically and beautifully styled in 
Scripture tlte hiding of God's face/ still 
subsist; it ,vill then be necessary to com- 
Inence a deep and impartial scrutiny both 
of the inward thoughts and of the outward 
conversation. Sins n1ay have been COln- 
lllitted,. and repentance 111ay have been 
neglected. Or, if external poHution has 
been a\.oided, the itnagination nlay have 


I hair hiv. 7. aud lix. Q. 



173 


been for SOine tilnc past deliberately and - 
habitually tainted ,vith inlpurity, inflalned 
with hatred, or too eagerly and exclush,ely 
employed upon sensible objects. Should 
such, upon a candid exanlÏnation, appear 
to have been the case, we may rest assured, 
that our offellce
 lzave separated bet(
:een God 
and us, and that our iniquities lta"{}c caused 
him to ,vithdraw the cheering light of his 
Holy Spirit. Even supposing that the 
conscience does not plead guilty to these of- 
fenc
s, \ve nlay possibly find, upon a Inore 
close search, that ,ve have not entirely sur- 
rcndered ourselves to the service of our hea- 
yenly master. Some secret reservation, some 
private cOlnpromise, may still be made. 
I
ike Ananias, we lnay be inclined to give 
only a part to God, st
ll retaining the 
relnainderforourselves. 'Vhichever of these 
be the case with us, it is our duty inlmedi- 
ately to put a,vay fronl us the accursed 
thing and hun1b]y to solicit peace and recon- 
ciliation ,vith heaven. If we find "rithin OUf- 



174 


selves a readiness to SUbll1Ìt to the painful 
task of self-examination, that very circunl- 
stance ought to be a matter of conlfort to us 
in the midst of our dejection. " It'is a good 
sign of grace," as TIp. I-Iopkins well 
observes, " when a man is wil1ing to search 
and examine hinlself, whether he be gra- 
cious or not. rrhere is a certain instinct in 
a child of God, \vhereby he_ naturaJIy de- 
sires to have the title 'of his legitimation 
tried; whereas a hypocrite dreads nothing 
more than to have his rottenness searched 
into. Try yourselves by this; do you love 
the word of God because it is a searching 
,vord, because it brings I houle convictions 
to you, and shakes Jour carnal confidences 
and presumptions? Do you love a mi- 
nistry, that speaks as closely and particu- 
larly to you, as if it "
ere another con- 
scieõce without you; a minist.ry, that ran- 
sacks your very souls, and teIls you all ' 
that ever you did? Do you delight in a 
ministry, that forceth you to turn ilHvard 



175 


upon yourselves, that makes you trenlble 
and look pale at every ,vord, for fear it 
should be the sentence of your danlnation ? 
This is a sign that your condition is good, 
because you are so willing to be searched.'" 


If such be our case, and if, after a dili- 
gent scrutiny, 've are able to discover 
nothing lnore than those ordinary imperfec- 
tions ,vith ,vhich the life of the very best 
Christian is chequered; if we cannot detect 
any particulal' cause of that gloom, ,vhich 
overhangs our spirits: let us not in such cir- 
cunlstances be like unto men \vithout hope. 
'Ve may depend upon it, that ,ve are 
exposed to this trial for the wisest and 
most merciful purposes. A II things u'ill 
. finally 
:ork togethel
for good to those tltat 
lo've God. Perhaps it n1ay be necessary 
for our spiritual ,vel fare, that our faith 
should be proved, that our self-confidence 


· Bishop Hopkins' Works, p. 553. 



176 



hould be abated, and that 'v
 should be 
Dlade to see that lnan, eyen in his bestestate, 
is altogether vanity. The careless and the 
iuconsiderate are ignorant even of the very 
existence of this internal distress. Those, 
that God loveth, are the persons ,,'hon1 he 
luore particularly chasteneth. If David 
,vas so frequently constrained to '/nOllrn by 
'J'eason of a.fJliction, and to exclaÏ1n in the 
bitterness .of his heart, Lord, 'l1ll!J ca:;test 
tholt off 111Y soul? wiry hidest t/tOlt thy face 
from '/ne?1 can ,ve reasonably expect to 
be Inade perfect ,vithout suffering? Our 
blessed Saviour hinlself was a 111an of sor- 
ro,vs and acquainted ,vith grief, and such 
also his disciples must frequently be. His 
tender care, however, has not left us 'with- 
ou t a provision against the day of e\'iJ 
tidings. Blessed are they t/tat mourn, for 
tltey s/tall be cOJnforted. Z 'fhis pron1Ïse he 
,vas afterwards pleased to explain more at 


· Psalm lxxxviii. 14. 


'% l\'Iatt. v. 4. 



177 


large, and to point out to us that gracious 
personage, through ,vhose agency ,ve may 
expect to receive the balm of consolation. 
I u7ill pray the Fathel", and h
 shall give YOlt 
another comforter, that he may abid
 'tJ)ith 
you for ever; even the Spirit of Truth; 
whont the 'If'orld cannot freceive, because it 
seeth him not, neither knoweth hint: but ye 
.- 
knotø hint; for he dwelleth ,{J)ith you, and 
shall be in YOlt. I u'ill not leave you cOlnfort- 
less. I 


In these ,vords, another very hnportant 
office of the Holy Ghost is pointed out to 
us; and a proluise is made, that he should 
abide ,vith us for ever in the capacity of a 
comforter. Through the midst of that gloom, 
,vith ,vhich the Christian is sometimes sur- 
rounded, a ray of light at length breaks in 
upon his soul, and dissipates the heavy 


· John xiv. 16. 
M 



178 


clouds of despondency. IIis mourning is 
turned into joy; and, instead of his ashes, 
he receives the oil of gladness. His filial con- 
fidence in God is again restored to him; he 
clearly sees the infinite Dlcrit of his Ite- 
.... 
deemer's sufferings; and doubts not to ap- 
ply to himself that gracious invitation, 
Come unto me, all ye t!tat labour and are 
heavy laden, and I 'U,ill r
frcslt YOlt. Such are 
the great things, \vhich God the Spirit hath 
òone for his soul, and ,vhich he fails not to 
ackno,vledge ,vith praise and thanksgiving. 
The remembrance of his past sorrows 
heightens his present joy; his faith is great- 
ly increased; and he learns to cast Ids bur- 
den upon the Lord, I who alone is able to 
sustain hÍ1n. a 


· Psalm Iv. 
2. 


S " The peace that we ha,'e witb God in Chr
t, is invio... 
1able ; but, because the sense and persuasion of it may be 
interrupted, the soul, that is truly at peace with God, may 
for a time be disquieted in itself, through weakness of 
faith, or the strength of temptation, or the darkness of 



179 



rhe I-Io]y Psa]mist frequently celebrates 
the goodness and Inercy of God for having 
deli vered hin) froJn this oppressive load of 
111 ental indisposition. I z;;aited patiently 
for tlte Lord; and lie inclined unto 1ne, and 
. 
heard my cry. He brought 17lC up also out oj" 
the horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set 
'lilY jeet upon a rock, and establisllcd my 
goings. A nd he hath put a new song in 'Iny 
mouth, C"cen pl'aise unto Oll'l" God; 1nany shall 
see it, and fear, and shall trust in tile Lord.J
 


desertion, losing sight of that grace, that love and light of 
God's countenance, on which its tranquillity and joy 
depend. Thou lâdesl tit!! face, saitb David, and I was 
troubled. But when these eclipses are over, the soul is 
revived with new consolation, as the face of the earth is 
renewed, and made to smile with the return of the sun in 
the spring; and this ought always to uphold Christians in 
the saddest times, viz. that the grace and love of God, 
towards them, depends not on their sense, nor upon auy 
thing in them, but is stiIl in itself incapable of the smallest 
alteration." Abp. Leighton's \V orls, Vol. i. p. 47. 
:I Psalm xl. ). 



180 


l'Iost indeed of those Psaluls, which begin 
sorrowfully, tenninate with expressions of 
jOJ and triuIU ph. In short, as Dr. Barrow 
,veIl observes," it is a notable part of the 
Holy Spirit's office to cOlnfort and sustain 
us, as in all our religious practice, so parti- 
cular1y in OUI" doubts, difficulties, distresses, 
and afflictions; to beget joy, peace, and 
satisfaction in us, in aU our performances, 
and in all our sufferings, \vhence the title of 
conifo1'tet. belongeth to him." I 


In addition to the internal trials of harass- 
ing doubts and fears, the Christian is also 
exposed to those external ones vihich are the 
COlnmon lot of n10rtality. His COD1munion 
'with God does not exempt hin1 from cala- 
mity and disease, fron1 the loss of his dear- 
est relatives, and fron1 the ingratitude of 
his most confidential friends. They, \vhose 
portion is in this \vorld, are freq uendy 


I Barrow's 'Y ork6, vol. ii, p.505. 



181 


much less subject to temporal f!1isfortunes, 
than the pious and the just. 'froubles of 
various kinds are often the lot of the 1110st 
highly favoured children of God. It is 
good for them to be kept in a state of per- 
petual war:f:1.re, in order that they 111ay be 
safe from carnal security and effelninate 
indulgence. The luxury of Capua proved 
Inore f.:'ltal to the Carthaginian hero, than 
an the efforts of ROlnan valour: 'and a 
Christian is never more in danger, than 
when taught by prosperity to considt>r him- 
self no longer in an enenlY's country. 
'Vhatever his afflictions ai'e, he n1ay rest 
assured that they are sent in Biercy, not in 
anger; that they are designed to "rean his 
affections froln sublunary ol
ccts, and to 
rivet them more ilnnloveahly upon the 
promised joys of hea\'en. \Vhen every 
earthly prospect of felicity is blasted by the 
pangs of disease or the inroads of poverty, 
by the prelnature death of our best beloved 
friends, "Of the loss of \vorldly reputation 



18
 


for the sake of our religion; ,ve then learn 
to look for happiness beyond the grave, in 
those blessed abodes where the ,vicked cease 
from troubling, and ,vhere the ,veary are at 
rest. In such distressing circumstances, 
the Christian is not deserted by his Saviour; 
and he soon finds, by his own happy expe- 
rience, that the Lord is a God who keepeth 
his promise ,vith a thousand generations. 
Through the gracious influences of the IIoly 
Spirit, he finds a light springing up in the 
midst of darkness; his sorro\vs are gradu- 
al1y assuaged; his confidence in God is 
increased; and he is brought at length to 
acknowlcdge that it is good for hin], that 
he has been afflicted. l
é no'l
 have SOlTÖU', 
said our blessed Lord to his disciples, but I 
will see YOlt again, and yoU)" joy 120 man 
taketh frOlJl you. 1 


It is usualJy so ordered by the merciful 


I John xvi. Q
. 



183 


providence of God, that, ,vhen ,vorldly 
cOlnforts are at the lowest ebb, and ,vhen 
earthly enjoyments are violently torn away 
from our grasp; the soul is then best fitted 
for divine exercises, and acquires a 1110re 
thorough insight into heavenly matters. 
This sacred consolation seems to be In- 
creased or diminished, according to the 
varying exigencies of the Christian. During 
the pains of martyrdom, all heaven opened 
upon the enraptured eyes of Stephen; and 
be beheld his Saviour ready to recei\ye hinl 
into the mansions of everlasting felicity. 
Unless, ho,vever, we should be placed in a 
similar situation, we certainly have no 
grounds to expect an equal degree of com- 
fort: yet, ,vhen the pious believer is strip- 
ped of all the good things \vhich this ,vorIc.l 
can afford, and when the iron has entered 
into his very soul; ,vhen his mortal part is 
,vasting a ,vay with disease, and when his 
Ï1nn10rtal spirit trernbles on the verge of 
futurity; is it unreasonable to suppose that 



184 


the God, ,vho hath promised to nlake all 
his bed in his sickness, win be his guide 
and his support even to death itself? 'Vhile 
the current of life is fast ebbing, never to 
flo\v agaIn in this world; Inay we not 
hun1bly trust that the Holy Spirit ,vill 
_descend into the soul with a full tide of 
glorJ, that aU n1isgiving fears and anxious 
doubts will be ren1oved, and that the terror 
of uncertainty ,vill be cOßverted into the 
fiJial confidence of hope?I 


" I trust, Beloved," says the judicious 
I-Iooker, " ,ve kno\v that ,ve are not repro- 
bates, because our spirit cloth bear us 
record, that the faith of our Lord Jesu
 


I Far be it from me to assert, that these sensible com- 
forts are in the slightest degree necessa1"!1 and essential to 
sal-ratioll: on the contrary, it is highly probable, that the 
sun of many of God's faithful servants hath set behind a 
cloud, in order only to rise with greater splendor in the 
kingdom of heaven. The possibility, and the necessity, of 
such comforts, are two entirely distinct ideas. 



185 


Christ is in us. It is as easy a matter for 
the spirit ,vithin you to tell whose ye are, 
as for the eyes of your body to judge where 
you sit or in ,vhat place you stand.-:F'or 
they, \vhich faU a,vay fron} tbe grace of 
God and separate thelnselves unto perdi- 
tion, they are fleshly and carnal, they have 
Dot God's IIoly Spirit. But unto you, 
because ye are sons, G-od hath sent forth 
the Spirit of hi5 Son into your hearts, to 
the end ye might know that Christ hath 
built you upon a rock unmoveable; that 
he hath registered your names in the book 
of life; that he hath bound himself in a 
sure and everlasting covenant to be your 
God, and the God of your children after 
you.- The Lord, of his infinite ll1ercy, give 
us hearts plentifully fraught ,vith the trea- 
sure of this blessed assurance of faith unto 
the end."1 


II-looker's \V orks, Vol. iii, p. 557, 5i8. Oxf. Edit. 



186 


'Ve are not ho,vever to imagine, that th
 
cOlnforts of a Christian are unifol'lnly the 
saIne at all tilnes, or that an equal sense of 
being at peace with God is granted to every 
believer. "This assurance," says the 
excel1ent Archbishop Leighton, "all the 
heirs of glory have not ordinarily ,vi thin 
them, and scarce any at all times equally 
clear. Some travel on in a covert cloudy 
day, and get honle by it, having so lTIuch 
light as to kno,v their \vay, and yet do not 
at an clearly see the bright and full sunshine 
of assurance: others have it breaking forth 
at SaIne times, and anon under a cloud: 
and some nlore constantly. But, as all meet 
in the end, so all agree in this in the begin- 
ning, that is, the rf'ality of the thing; they 
are made unalterably sure heirs of it, in 
their effectual calling. m 


The scriptural expression, the Seal of tIle 



 'V OIk:s" Vol. ii. p. 340. 



187 


Spirit, seenlS plainly to signify, that the 
soul of that Christian, upon \vhom it is Ï1n- 
pressed, bears as evident marks of confor- 
mity to the will of God, as the ,vax does of 
siInilarity to the seal by \vhich it has been 
stan1ped/ By Ineans of this resemblance, the 
Spirit bearetlt u:itllCSS c:øitlt our spirits t/tat we 
are the children of God, thus infusing into · 
our hearts the sweet balm of divine consola- 
tion. -,;\ s the Christian clear] y discerns, that 
there is a natural unfitness in the unregene- 
rate soul to enter into the kingdom of 
heaven; so, in consequence of the change, 
. 
,vhich has taken place within hiln, he 
argues, that the regenerate soul, the soul 
which bears the im pression of the seal of the 
Spirit, is also unfit for the society of the 
damned. However deeply he may be con- 
scious of his nUluerous deficiencies, yet he 


· See Ep. Hoph.ius's 'v orks, p. 5129. Bp. Andrews's 
Works, p. 654, 660. Ep. Hooper's \Vorks, p. 581. Bp. 
Wilkins on Prayer, p. 12l26. 



188 


finds ,vithin l1in1self a certain relish and 
affection for heavenly matters, which he 
kn01vs is foreign to his nature, and which 
consequ
utly llluSt have been derived from 
50me external influence. Of ourselves 1'
,'e 
can neitlze1' will nor do any thing that is 
good; he finds, that he does both lvill and 
do that which is good, though in a degree 
far inferior to his ,vishes : hence he con- 
cludes, that his sufficiency is derived, not 
frODl himself, but from God. lIe looks 
around him, and perceives that the bulk of 
mankind have DO standard of action except 
their o,vn inclinations; they consider not 
,\
hat is acceptable to God, but ,vhat is 
pleasing to themselves; and their own 
gratification is the sole end of aU their pur- 
suits. On the contrary, he cannot avoid 
observing, though it be ,vith the utlnost 
humility, that his conduct is influenced by 
,videly different principles. Self is daily 
nlortified, and the sense of duty is daily 
'strengthened. I-lis loj
!J looks al'e ltulllbled, 



189 


and his haughtiness is bowed do'tt:n ; the Lord 
alone is e.ralted, and his honour alone is con- 
sulted. 1 Though he may perpctuaUy fàll 
short of his intentions, yet those intentions 
relnain unaltered; and his fixed purpose is 
, 
to do all things to the glory of God.' 'Vhen 
he considers what has been-done for his 
soul, he is filled with gratitude and humility. 
I-lis o,vn vileness forms such a contrast with 
the mercy of his R
deemer, as fills him 
with astonishment; and he is constrained 
to acknowledge, that the whole is the Lord's 
doing. Such is that blessed correspondence 
of our inclinations with the will of God, 
,vhich Scripture denolninates the seal of the 
Spi1'it; such are those strong consolat.ions, 
,vhich the AI
ighty alone is able to besto,v 
upon us. 


N or does the ti tIe of P al'aclete convey 
silnply the idea of a cO'l1iforter; it is also 


I Isaiah ii. 11. 



190 


the office of the I-Ioly Ghost to suggest to us 
fit lnattcr for our devotions, and to present 
our inlperfect suppJications before the 
throne of grace. Of ourselves, ,ve are 
unable to offer up a single acceptable 
prayer; for every good and every perfect 
gift c01Jzctli f'ro1Tl abo-ce. lIenee the A postle 
declares, that tile Spirit also Ilelpetlt OUT 
il1fi1'lnities ; f01'" zce know not u.-hat 
'e should 
pray for as. z.:'e ougltt: but the Spirit itself 
maketh intercession jo'l' us. 'U
itlt g'l'oan- 
ings ,{C)]tic]t cannot be uttel'ed. J He is our 
advocate at the bar of heaven, where he 
continually pleads in our behalf the merits 
of our blessed Sayiour ,vith an eloquence, 
of which mortal tongues are incapable. 
To adopt the language of the pious Barrow, 
n He reclaitneth us from error and sin; 11e 
supporteth and strcngtheneth us in tenlpta- 
tion; he adviseth and adlnonisheth, exci- 
teth and encourageth, us to all works of 


· Rom. viii. 2G. 



191 


piety and virtue.-He guideth; and quick- 
." - 
eneth, ns in devotion: sha\ving us ,vhat ,ve 
should ask; raising in us holy desires and 
comfortable hopes; disposing us to ap- 
proach unto God with fit dispositions of 
Blind, love, and reverence, and humble 
confidence.-I-Ie is also our intercessor ,vith 
God; presentìng our supplications, and 
procuring our good. He cryeth in us, he 
pIeadeth for us to God. 'Yhence he is 
peculiarly caned 7rapax^"fJTofi, tlte advocate; 
that is, one, ,vho is called in by his good 
,vord or countenance to aid him, ,\Those 
cause is to be exarnined, or petition to be 
considered."1 


These are the benefits which the Christian 
receives from the Holy Spirit, in the way of 
consolation and intercession. In the lnidst 
of his troubles, he is not left conlfortless; 
for he is perfect1 y assu red and convinced, 


· Barrow's 'V orks, Vol. Ïi. p. 505. 



192 


that God careth for 
im. A peace unkno"Tn 
to the wicked is diffused over his heart; 
and he gratefully confesses that the hand, 
,vhich besto,ved it, nlust be divine. He 
approaches the throne of grace without 
fear; for he kllou's in If)hom he hath believed, 
and relies upon the in terc
ssion of the AI- 

1)ighty Spirit. IU1pressed with the convic- 
tion of these great truths, he can joyfulIy 
take up th
 ,vord
 of the Psalmist; The 
Lord is llzy shepherd; I shall not 'li'anf. He 
'lllaketh me to lie dor;;n in green pastu1'tes; he 
leadeth me beside the still u'atn's. Ife resto- 
'I'eth rny soul, he leadeth rile in the paths of 
1'iglzteolls'llessfor his name's sake. Yea, though, 
I 'lRJalk through tlte valley of tIle shadow of 
death, 1 'will jear no e-cil; jor thOll Gr't u'ith 
me; thy rod and thy sta.ff' they cornjor>t me. 
SU1
el'!l, goodness aud lnel'cy shall follow '1ne 
all the days of 'Jny life, and I will dwell in the 
house of the Lo'rd j01' ever. I 


· Psalm :xxiii. 



CHAP. VII. 


----- 


Tlte f1'uits qf the Spil'ii contrasted with the works oJ 
the Flesh. 


. 
 . 


I. NOT'VITHSTANDING the preceding dis- 
cussion, sonle one nlay still perhaps be 
inclined to ask, ][o'(ø GIn I to know, whether 
my understanding, 'Jny will, and my affec- 
tions, have indeed been acted upon by the 
Holy Spirit of God? The question is a 
most Ï1nportant one, yet, I trust., by no 
means unans,verable. \V ould ,ve solve it 
satisfactorily, let us have recourse to 
Scripture. 


1. Some atten1pt to reduce the ,vhole of 
the influences of the Spirit to a mere exter- 
N 



]94 


nal decorllnl; and profanely decry as en- 
thusiasnl the belief in that supernatural 
change of heart, the necessity of which is 
so strongly inculcated by our Saviour. As 
if it ,,'cre probable, that the diaboJical sins 
of cnvy, hatred, and malice, sins perfectly 
compatible ,vith ouhvard decency, did not 
render a luan just as lTIuch a child of helJ, 
as the more glaring turpitude of drunken. 
ness, fornication, and dishonesty. 


2. On the other hand, SOll1e ,vouId per- 
suade us, that aln10st the whole of religion 
consists in ,,,arm and lively feelings; and 
that, unless our souls are perpetually (as it 
,vere) in the third heaven, ,ve know but lit- 
tle of the nature of the Spirit's influences, 
or of the privileges of genuine Christianity. 
Hence they are obviously led to imagine
 
that if sensible comforts abound, they may 
safely' conclude theiTIselves at peace with 
God; but that, if they be withdrawn, the, 



195 


llave no longer any right to believe thenl- 
selves his children. rrhus the favour of the 
Almighty, of hirD \vho knoweth neither 
change nor shado\v of turning, is supposed 
to be as variable and irregular as the human 
temperature. rrhe frequent coldness and 
languor of our devotions, the perpetual 
" 
,vandering of our thoughts from divine 
subjects, and the ind ifference ,vith \vhich 
,ve too often contclnplate the redeen1ing 
goodness of our Lord, are indeed sad 
proofs of the corruption of our nature, 
and afford ample cause for humility and 
contrition: but there is no reason to think, 
that they are marks of unregeneracy, or 
tokens of God's rejection and abiding dis- 
pleasure. His covenant is built upon a 
surer foundation than either our feelings or 
our faithfulness: feelings, ,vhich are sub- 
ject to incessant variatiòn; and faithful- 
ness, which the very best of us lllust o,vn 
to be but too unfaithful. 



196 


3. Gnd ü.:illing l1LOre abllndaJltllj to sho;:,;, 
unto the heirs of promise the imrnutability of 
llis counsel, corr/h'med it by an oath; that by 
luo illullulable things, in 'æhiclt it u,;S impos- 
sible jf)}. God to lye, W
 llzight hare a st'J'ong 
consolation, U:110 lza
'e fled f01" 'J.ifuge to lay 
hold upon the hope set bejorr, us: which 
llope røe hat'e as an anchor of the soul both. 
:sure and stedjclst. 1 


'rhis is the great charter of the Christian, 
on \vhich he builds the hope of his salva- 
tion. God hath sworn, that he will never 
forsake the heirs of proluise; but that he 
,viJl be \vith then1 in every trial, and will 
safely conduct thelTI to the very end of 
their pilgrimage. Therefore, with faithful 
.r\braham, they believe even against hope 
and in despite of their natural feelings. They 
ll1ay be cast down, but they are not des- 


I Heb. vi. 17. 



197 


troyed ; and, in the lnidst of aU their dif- 
ficulties, they trust that a life is hid for t!tern 
r
'ith Ch-rist in God.' Faith is not the 
e"cidence of things seen, but of things Ull- 

een: consequently, if our religious state 
w'as to be decided by our fce1ings, the very 
foundation of faith would be overturned; 
and we should have sensible den1onstration 
of that, which we are required to believe, 
simply because (;od has pron1ised it. 


II. The same question howe,'cr luay 
still be asked; HO'lø arn I to know, 'lø!tetltcl' 
I hat'e been relleú'ed by the Floly Ghost? 
How can I tell u1tethc'J' I ha,:e any 1'ight to 
apply God's promises to 'lll!Jsclf'? The 
charter of sah:ation is sl!fJiciclltly clear and 
explicit; but that will afford 1\IE little 
comfort, unless I have good 'rcason f'or 
t!linking t!tat I lon included. 


J Coloss. iii. :3, 



198 


1. I..Jct us see, whether we cannot find an 
answer to these q neries, in the page of 
Scri pture. St. Paul inforIus us, that tlte 
flesh lllsteth against the spirit, and the spirit 
against the flesh: and these are contrary 
the one to tlte other. I l\re we sensible then 
of any internal contest of this description 
in Ollr hearts? Do ,vc perceive a new prin- 
ciple, to which we were fonnerly strangers, 
strongly dra,ving us to the practice of ho1i- 
ness and all good ,,"orks; ,,,hile another 
principle dall1pS our ardonr, discourages 
our exertions, and too frequently frustrates 
0\11' best resolutions? I-Ie, that has never 
felt such a struggle, Inust either be sinless 
or dead in sins. It is needless to say, that 
the forn1er supposition cannot but be 
erroneous. 


2. 'Ve further learn fron1 the Apostle, 
that we cannot do the things that lee would. 


· Gal. v. 17. 



199 


Are ,ve deeply conSCIOUS then, that this 
is our case? Do we daily 1110re and more 
discover our o\vn insufficiency? Do we la- 
D1ent that \VC cannot perform our duty bet- 
ter, labouring ho,vever at the same tin1e 
, incessant1y after spiritual in1prOyement? 
l\Iany persons will readily enough ackno,v- 
ledge their Ï1uperfections; but the question 
is, in \vhat 11'lallller do they 111ake the ac- 
knowledgment? Do they really feel the 
burden of their sins to be intolerable? Do 
they indeed, and from the very bottoJn of 
their souls, experience the pain and grief 
of falling so far short of their wishes? Or 
do they confess their failings \vith as nluch 
phlegmatic indifference, as if it \vere a mat- 
ter \vhich concerned any body in the ,vhole 
\forId rather than then1se}ves? The disor- 
ders of the soul are constantly represented 
in Scripture by corresponding disorders of 
the body: hence it is reasonable to su p- 
pose, that., as corporeal pain is the result 
of the latter, so Inental pain or grief ,viII he 



200 


the natural consequence of the former. In 
,vhat Inanner then is a person affected, who 
has long laboured under the pressure of a 
severe disease? 'Vin he speak of his pains 
,vith insensibility? 'ViII he i;it down per- 
fectly contented with hi5, Ina]ad.r, totaUy 
forget its inconvenience, and take no steps 
to procure its removal, or at least its alle- 
viation? 'Vhere did ,ve ever nleet ,vith a 
sick n1an, who answered to this description? 
Can ,ve then easily believe, that he is very 
sensible of his spiritual disorder, who speaks 
of it ,vith canJessness, finds it no obstacle 
to his enjoYlnents, and feels scarcely any 
desire for its expulsion? If a man 'really per- 
cei \'ed, that he cannot do tlte things {chic/I, 
he ú:ollld, in the sanlC manner that St. Paul 
did, he would experience the same restless 
SOITO'V, which constrained the Apostle to 
cry out; 0 wretched rnan that I am, who 
shall deliver me .from the body of this death? 
Let us then seriously ask ourselves, Do we 
clearly discern our inf'fficiency; do 'l
e 1a- 



9JOl 


ment our numerous failings; and do we 
labour earnestly after alnendrnent? The 
ans,ver to these questions is ahuost alone 
sufficient to decide, 'whether we have any 
right to consider oursehres heirs of the pro- 
Huse. 


The A postle however is not content tc 
let the matter rest here. He gives us a 
black catalogue of those deeds of darkness 
,vhich are the works of the flesh, and then 
forcibly contrasts them. with the fruits of 
the Holy Spirit, thus paraphrasing, as it 
,vere, our Saviour's brief declaration, By 
their fruits shall ye know theln. 


III. NO'lø the works of tlte flesh are mani.. 
fest, which are these; adulte1
y, fOl'nication, 
uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witch- 
craft, hall'cd, variance, emulations, wrath, 
strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murde'rs, 
drunkenness, revelling's, and sllch like: of the 
'ð,:ltich I tell !lOll b
fore, as I ha1)C a1$0 told 



20
 


you in time past, t!lat t!ley '(i'hic'" do sllcTt 
t/Zings shall not illhe'J'it tlie kingdom of God. I 


1. If then ,ve be anxious to kno\v ,vhe. 
tIler ,ve a1'e led by tlte Spirit of God, let us 
examine ourselves, and learn whether ,ve 
,york the deeds of the flesh. Do ,ve live in 
babits of fornication and uncleanness? Are 
we addicted to the foul sin. of drunkenness? 
Or, supposing that ,ve are free froDl these 
external abominations, are ,ve equally guilt. 
less of internal ,vickedness? Do ,ve set up 
the ",'orld as an idol in opposition to the 
living God? Do we indulge in sentinlents 
of uncharitableness towards our neigh- 
bours ? Do \ve entertain a proud, self- 
sufficient, opinion of ourselves; and con- 
tend, upon all occasions, 'with the bitterest 
animosity, for 'what we caB our rights? Are 
,ve uncasy and restless beneath the lawful 
authority of our superiors, perpetually 


· Galat. v. 19. 



203 



tri\'ing to fon1ent discord and sedition, des- 
pising donzil1iol1, and ::;pcakillg evil of digni- 
ties? I Do ,vc delight in promoting schism 
and heresy in the Church; and, under the 
cloak of Christian zeal, in acting the saIne 
part now, that I(orah, Dathan, and Abi- 
raIn, did of old? Are 've guilty of pervert- 
ing religion into rebellion, and faith into 
faction, or of concealing the most Anti- 
christian sentiments beneath the specious 
D1ask of piety and humility? I,et us. dili- 
gently scrutinize our hearts, and see, ,vhe- 
ther they produce these corrupt fruits; and 
if ,ve unhappily find such to be the case, 
,vhile we lament our ,vickedness and trem- 
ble at our danger, let us pray God to grant 
us a bettcr spirit and to enable us to for- ' 
sake the evil of our ,va ys. 'Vhat is the 
awful declaration of the Apostle respecting 
the '\
orkers of iniquity? I tell you before, 
as I ha-cc also told YOll in time past, that they 


-- 


· Jude 8. 



204 


which do such things shall not inh
rit the 
kingdom of God. 


2. It nlay perhaps be said, If God be 
C3:treme to '1Jzark what is done amiss, 'l2'llomay. 
abide it? TVhere is tile man, who does not oj:' 
fend daily, both in thought, u:ol'd, and deed? 


'Ve readily a.cknowledge, that our very 
best deeds are unclean in the eyes cif him, 
u,ho chargeth e
'en his angels u:ith foZZy; but 
the point is, in what manne'l' do ,ve bear 
the consciousness of our sinfulness? Are w'e 
penitent, or impenitent, offenders? l\Iercy is 
abundantly held forth to the former; but 
pardon is never once offered to the latter. 
rrhough God gives his grace to the hUluble, 
he stcdfastly r
sists the proud and the pre- 
sumptuous. 'V ere ,ve really conscious of 
tIle load of our iniquities, did ,ve 'I'cally de- 
sire to be freed fronl thei; yoke, we should 
feel oursehres little less inconlnloded by our 
subjection to thenl, than the eye does ,yhen 



205 


inflamed with even the most minute parti- 
cle of sand. 'Ve all kno\v, that the very 
sn1allest nlote occasions such an exquisite 
degree of pain in the organ of vision, as to 
pernÜt us to enjoy no rest until it be ex- 
tracted. Sornething silnilar to this are the 
sensations of the D1an, who truly feels his 
sin to be a grievous burden to him. He is 
uneasy and restless until it be ren10ved; he 
cannot cheerfully, or even talnely, acquiesce 
in its dominion; nor can he be content, so 
long as he knows himself to be its vassal. 


Here then ,ve have another test, by ,v11ich 
we may deci.de ,vhether or no we are in a 
state of grace. If we acknowledge our sins 
without the least con1punction and ,vithout 
any ,vish to be freed frOIn their tyranny, 
our situation is indeed n10st awfu1Jy dange- 
rous; ,ve trerl1 ble on the very brink of a 
preci pice, froÌn which if wa tall, ,ve fall to 
rIse no more. But, if we feel a vehcnlcnt 



206 


degree of pain and restless uneasiness Ín 
their continuance, if we experience a strong 
and ardent desire for their removal, if \ve 
labour incessantly to effect their extirpation, 
if we declare everlasting ,val' against them: 
our situation then is good; \ve have thell 
no reason to doubt, but that the Holy Spi- 
ri t of God is contending for the possession 
of our hearts. In such a case, Jet us joy- 
fuBy ,velc<?mc the hea\yenly visitor, and rc- 
sign ourselves in1plicitIy to his guidance and 
direction. 


s. 'Ve are not ho,vever to be,content ,vith 
lucre negative religion, with only endea- 
,-ouring to abstain from evil; ,ve D1USt also 
labour after the things that are good. The 
I-Ioly Spirit is an active energetic principle, 
and is perpetually enlployed in ne\v-mould., 
jng the hearts of the faithful and in leading 
them to the practice of aU righteousness. 
Good \vorks, as our Church justly deter
 



207 


ll1ines: ntccssa}"ily spring out of a true and 
lively faith; and it is Ì1npossible for those, 
,vho are under the influence of the Holy 
Ghost, to avoid sho,ving whose ser,-ants 
they are by their life and conversatiol1
 
lIenee, a striking difference of character 
'v ill always be perceptible between the 
children of light and the children of dark- 
ness: in
omuch that, generally speaking, 
it ,,,ill require no very great degree of pene- 
tration to discrin1Ïnatc between the
 ; espe- 
ciaHy, if \ve study the strongly-dra,vn por- 
traits of them, ,vith ,vhich we have been 
furnished by the Apostle. 


IV. The Lfruit of lite Spirit is love, joy, · 
peace, long-sujjèring, gentleness, goodness, 
.faith, l1zeekness, tCJllperance: against slle/It 
there is no lar
'. And they, tltat a}"c Christ's, 
havc crucified the flesh, with thc ajjectiolls añd 
lu:,ts. I}. U'C live in tlte Spirit, let us also 
u;alk in tlte Spirit.J. 
. 


I Art. xii. 


:. Galat. v. 2
. 



208 


]. The Christian, though originalJy in a 
state of ennlity \vith God, has his affections 
so far changed by the influence of the 1-101y 
Ghost, that he now loves \vhat before he 
hated, and n(HV hates what before he loved. 
None perhaps of the sacred ,vritings breathe 
the spirit of divine charity in a more ell1i- 
nent degree, than those of the beloved dis.. 
ciple 
f our Lord. '-rhey contain a beau- 
tiful picture of that dove-like temper which 
seen1S peculiarly to have belonged to their 
author, and may be considered as a kind 
of manual for the daily use of believers. 


N octurna versate manu, versate diurna. 


. 


From a constan t perusal of them, joined 
,vith the prayer of faith, we may reasonably 
expect to derive SOHle portion of that spirit 
,vith \vhich they are animated. \Yhen a 
Christian considers his ow n rebeHious and 
perverse nature, and contrasts it with the 
wonderful goodness of God, displayed in 
his redemption and sanctification; his heart 
is softened \vith such condescending ll1al'ks 




09 


of l\huighty love. lIe is astonished at that 
lnercy and pat.ience, which so long bore with 
his iniquities and spared hin1 till the hour 
of repentance arrived. He recollects nUlll- 
bel's cut off in the n1idst of their career, ,vitl
- 
out ever having had his opportunities vouch- 

afed to them; and the words of the Apostle 
instantly recur to his mind, TVlto hatlt rnade 
thee to d
ffer froJ/t another' He is deeply 
conscious, that he had no claim upon God 
on the score of a prerequisite tneritorious- 
ness; and he acknow-Iedges that he Inight 
justly have been suffered to perish in his sins. 
This conviction, united with the considera- 
tion of his present happy state, fills his heart 
with sentiments of humble love and devout 
gratitude. lIe confesses the whole to be free 
grace, and he gi \yes all the glory to G Qd. 
Boasting is excluded, and a heart-felt humi- 
lity takes place of vanity and presurnption. 


1Ve u'ere by naturc the childrcn of 11'ratll, 
even as others; but God, who is 1'ich in merClf, 
() 



210 


for his grt,at lo'ce 'l1}herewith lit! lo't.led U!, f'Ccn, 
rchen 'lee were dead in sins, l,ath quickened u
 
logethe1' with Christ: by grace ye are sæved : 
end hath raised liS up together, and made us 
sit together ill heavenly places ill Christ Je.. 

llS: that ill the ages to cOlne he 'JJzlght slw'Cil 
the eL!ceeding riches of his grace, in his kind. 
ness to'l
:ard liS through Christ Jeslls- For 
through hÏ1n U'f both have access by one Spirit 
unto the Father.- Now therefore ye are no 
m01'e strangers and foreigners, but fellow- 
t:iti
'ens 'lX'itll, the saints, and of the household 
of God; and are built upon the foundation 
of the apostles aud prophets, Jesus Cllrist 
hirnself being the chief corner-stone. I 


'fhe contemplation of these benefits ex... , 
cites the utmost love of the Christian, and 
he experiences the truth of St. John's decla- 
ration: Herein is love, not that we loved 
God, but that he loved us, and sent his son 


· Ephes. ii.
. 18. 



211 


to be t,
e propitiation f01" Olll' sins. 1Ve lovt 
hinl, because he first lovf.d us. 1 "Vhile his 
affections are thus set on things above, he 
does not forget to dra\v the saIne edifying 
conclusion fron1 the goodness of his heavenly 
Father, \vhich the Apostle did before hin1. 
If God so loved us, 'liZJe ought also to love on
 
another/' This is the only sur
 foundation 
of love to our brethren. The world has 
often largely and eloquently discoursed 
upon sincerity and disinterestedn.ess, but it 
has felt little of the reaJity; and a thousand 
unto\vard accidents \vill overthro\v the n10st 
ancient friendships, unless they be built 
on the rock of Christianity. 'I'hat, \vhich 
among natural men is a mere abstract idea, 
a metaphysical non-entity, is converted by 
the influence of religion into a glorious 
reality. Behold horø these Christians lo'ce 
one anal Iter, \vas the constrained ob5erva- 
tion even of paganisln; and such ,viII 


· 1 John iv. 10. H}. 



 1 John iy. 11. 



212 


always be the case, wherever vital religion 
prevails. Au ardent desire to pronlote the 
spiritual welfare of our neighbours, a tender 
concern for the interest of their souls, anù 
a hearty wish to do them all the good in our 
power, independent of any secondary mo- 
tives, are sonle of the best proofs that ,vc 
are led by the Spirjt of God. Beloved, let 
us love one anothe'l' : fOl" love is oj' God, and 
everyone that loveth is born of God, and 
1cnol1:cth God. He that lot'cth not, knO'lê)eflt 
not God., for God is love-If we love one 
another, God dwelleth in us, and his lo'ce is 
perfected in us. I-Iereby know we, that we 
dwell in hÙn, and he in us, becallse /te /tatl, 
gil 1 en us of his Spirit-I}' a man say, I 101'e 
God, and hateth /tis brother, he is a fia1": 
for he t/tat lo'veth not !tis brother tf)/tom he 
hath seen, how can he lo'ce God, U,hOl11 he 
hath not seen? And this commrlJubnent have 
we fr01n him, That he, who loveth God, love 
his brother also. 1 


1 John iv. 7. 12.20. 



213 


2. 'Vhcn the Christian is thus in a state 
of charity both with God and his neigh- 
bour, he experiences that joy and that 
peace, which passeth all understanding; 
,vhich the "world is neither able to confer, 
nor to take away. His joy is not like the 
Inad, short-lived joys of the children of 
darkness, but stable and durable. It is 
founded upon the sense of his being recon- 
ciled to God, through the blood of Jesus 
Christ. Hence it is not liable to be affect- 
ed by those outward circuillstances, ,vhich 
shake the happiness of the worldly-minded. 
In the ll1idst of persecution and distress, 
sickness and affliction, the serenity of the 
Christiú.l1 still remains unmoycd; and he 
looks forward ,vith confidence to the recom- 
}1enCe of reward, being wen assured, that 
all these rnorncntary sorrows 'lX'ork for him a 
jar 1nore e.Tceeding and eternal 'l.:eight (if 
glory. I-lis joy and peace, it is true, arc 
not of a violent and tU1l1U1tuoUS kind; they 
arc rather a sensation of security and' tran- 



214 


quillity, than a sudden flash of rapturous 
transport; they 1'eseu1ble the salutary and 
equable warmth of the sun, not the porten
 
tous blaze of a 111cteor. Such ,vas the peace, 
lvhich the apostles experienced, when they 
rejoiced, that they were counted ,vorthy to 
suffer shanle for the nalne of Christ; J 
and such ,\--as that confidence, which 
111ade the prin1iti,re nlartyrs appear ra- 
ther as if ,they 'were nlarching in a tri. 
umph, than as if led to torments and igno- 
miny. External sorrows, indeed, the 
Christian must expect, but nothing is ab]e 
to deprive him of his internal conlfort. 
Notwithstanding his outward distresses, he 
feels an the yal ue of his pri vi]eges, and 
envies not the transitory prosperity of the 
,vorlelling. Ye now have sorrow, said our 
Lord to his disciples, but I u'ill see Y01t 
again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your 
joy 1Z0 man taketh frolll YOll.
 This serenity, 


I Acts v. 41. 


: John xvi. 22. 



215 


though undoubtedly not ,vithout some in- 
terruptions, is the portion of the Christian 
through the appointed t
nn of his pilgrim- 
age. It may occasionally for ,vise purposei 
be withdra,vn, and hi
 sensible cOlllforti 
may be din1inished; but the eye of faith 
still looks forward to the joys of heaven, 
and anticipates the time ,vhen doubt and 
:5orro,v shall be swalJowed up in victory. 
Grief is seldonllong the portion of a Christ- 
ian. A light spl'il1gS up in the nzidst of 
(larkness Þ and gladness once nlore beconles 
the lot of sllch as are true-hearted. The 
joys of religion are the encouragement of 
youth, and the prop of old age. 'Vithout 
them, ,ve sicken even in the n1idst of pros- 
perity; and, ,vith theIn, adversity loses aU 
its terrors. They Slveeten our slumbers; 
they soothe our waking hours. At home 
and abroad, in private and in puhlic, they 
are our constant cODlpanions, our richest 
treasures. The vigour of youth, and 
the blush of health, are transitory bless. 



216 


ings; the pride of rank soon wearies; and 
riches n}ake themse}yes wings and fly 
al'ray: but the joy of a Christian, though 
it ,valks upon earth, hides its head in 
hea'"en. It is the gift of God; and God 
alone is able to deprive him of it. 


3. l\n abiding sense of his own defects, 
and a grateful remen1brance of unde
erved 
n}ercies, produce in a beljever the alniabJe 
qualities of long-suffering, meekness, and" 
gentleness. Differences, indeed, there ,viII 
be in the various tempers of yarious Christ- 
ians; nor do the naturalJy harsh and rug- 
ged, perl]aps, ever attain to the same cmi... 
nence in these graces, as the naturaJJy 
placid and benign. But a similar spirit 
,vil1 ne,"ertheless be observable in them (ill ; 
a spirit far removed froln that proud sense 
of injury, that haughty self-vindication, 
,vhich constitutes the '"ery essence of mo- 
dern honour. A desire of mutual accom- 
Jnodation; a meek endurance of the 



217 


perverseness of others; a patient tolerance 
of those little affronts, which are the 
offspring of childish petulance, and which 
are frequently 1TIOre irrit
ting than serious 
acts of injustice; nlark the characters of all 
real Christians. lIe, to .'whom nature has 
given less of th(( milk of hunlan kindness, 
Inourns in private Ol'er those sallies into 
,vhich he is sonletimes hurried, and labours 
incessantly to check the inlpetuosity of his 
telnper. On the other hand, he, who has 
recei\'ed a lTIOre plentiful share of the mild- 
er affections, blesses God for his bounty, 
and rejoices in the cultivation of his talent. 
An are not born with the anliable disposi- 
tion of St. John; but an are enabled, .in a 
sufficient degree, to subdue innate ferocity, 
and to repress the sudden starts of proud 
indignation. The leopard is constrained to 
lie down \vith the kid, and the ,volf to dwell 
with the lalub; the lion and the bear put 
off their savage natures, and submit to the 
guidance even of an infant. 




18 


4. Another elninent fruit of the Spirit is 
goodness. lfTitllO'llt holiness no.. man sllall Sf 
tIle Lord, but without the assistance of the 
Holy Ghost no man can attain to holiness; 
hence good ness is rightly enunlerated 
among the fruits of the Spirit. The Christ- 
ian will not allo\v himself to indulge in the 
comu1ission of an!! sin. The same sense of 
duty, ,vhich restricts him frolD fornication 
and uncleanness, forbids him also to violate 
the laws of temperance and moderation.. 
He is not satisfied 'with a pa'l'tial observance 
of God's cOlnn1andn1ents; his principle is 
1.11zivf'l'SaZ and l.l71li1nited obedience. Hð 
seeks not to extenuate a favourite vice; he 
strives not to persuade himself, that it is 
only a venial infinnity : he rather labours to 
eradicate it entirely frOll) his breast, and to 
tear it away, though it be as dear to him as 
the apple of his eye. Yet, while he strug- 
gles to attain personal holiness both in 
thought, ,vord
 and deed; he carefuHy 
, 
guards against the fatal error of trusting to 



219 


it for his justification. 'Vhen he has done 
all, he still acknowledges hinlself to be an 
unprofitable servant; and places aU the 
hopes of his sal vation, solely upon the me- 
ri ts of his Redeemer. 


5. This stedfast reliance upon the all- 

ufficiency of the blood of Christ is the 
grand and most inlportant gift of the 
Spirit. Faith is the tree, from ,vhich aU 
other graces spring; the shield, which is to 
defend us froin the assaults of the po,ver
 
of darkness; the sure rock, upon 'v hich we 
must lay our foundations. That faith, 
,vhich is the fruit of the Spirit, is not a 
barren, inactive belief, a cold, speculative 
assent to the truth of our religion; but a 
lively, energetic principle, ,vhich God alone 
is able to instill into the heart. 'Ve may 
be irresistibly cOlnpel1ed to a bare belief 
by the mere force of evidence; but, unless 
God is pleased to superadd to it a Christian 
faith, it \viII only be the sanIe conviction 31 



220 


that, which forces the dcyils to tremble. A 
nlan D1Ust believe with tlw heart to right- 
eousness,' not sill1ply ,vith the head; or he 
,viII derive but little benefit from the ortho- 
doxy of his faith. Not C1,'C1"!J one, t!tat saith 
111110 'lne, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the lcillg- 
dOln oj' heaven, but he that doeth the ú.,"ill of 
71ZY Father, which is in /zea.cen. Christian 
faith is a grateful acknowledgnlent of the 
mercies of redeID ption; an unshaken con- 
fidence in the ,vord of him, who hath pro- 
mised; the instrunlent, by ,vhich ,ve re- 
ceive the benefits of Christ's death and 
passion; and the main-spring, ,:rhich occa- 

ions and regulates an our actions. It 
is the seed of an goodness, and the fruitful 
paren t of aU those graces which adorn the 
Christian profession. 1'hrough faith, the 
,,-cak becoJne strong; the doubtful, reso- 
Jute; and the tinlid, courageous. Faith 
holds up before their eyes the prospect of a 
heavenly kingdoI11, and convinces then! of 
the cnlptiness of earthly enjoymel1ts. It 



 Rom. x. 10. 



2
1 


enables thenl to crucify the flesh with its 
affections and ) lIsts, to fear no difficulties, 
and to shrink frorn no dangers. It teache
 
theln to draw near ill, full assurance of hope, 
/llLving their hearts sprinkled froJn an evil 
conscience and their bodies washed with pllr
 
'tøatel", and to !told fast their profession 
without 'wavering, f07- he is faithful t/tat 
proJnised. It enables them to lay a..,id
 
c"cery 
'eight and the sin 'lJhich cloth so easily 
beset tltem, and to run u'ith patience the 
race t/tat is set before iheJJI, looking unto 
Jeslls, t/te author and finisher of their faith, 
r.;ho for tlte joy, that was set before hiJn, cn- 
dured the cross, despising tlte shame, and is 
$ct dOlt'lt at the 'J'ight hand oj' tlte 'Jnajesty of 
heaven. In short, faith is the middle link, 
which connects the visible and invisible 
,vorlds; which supports us in this life, and 
fits us for the life to conle. 


V. Such arc the blessed fruits of the 
Spirit of God: a total change takes place 



2qz
 


In tI1
 heart; and along ,vith it a total 
change in the nlotives, the actions, and the 
conversation. An answer is now obtained 
to the important question, Ha"oe I been re- 
newed by the Holy Ghost? Try yourself 
by the Christian standard; exalnine your... 
self diligently; and see, 'whether you pro- 
d lice those fruits, ,vhich are n1eet for repen- 
tance. Do you indulge in the practice of any 
known sin? Do you suffer yourself to be 
enslaved by the diabolical passions of envy, 
hatred, and malice? Do you find a self- 
ish spirit predominate, instead of that gene- 
rous and diffusive loye, ,vhich is the pecu- 
liar characteristic of Cliristianity? So 
again, if 
rou be happily conscious that 
such is not your case, do you perform your 
good deeds [rOll) a sincere desire of pro.. 
moting the honour of God and the cause 
of religion, rather than from vain-glory and 
ostentation? Do you strive in all things to 
consult the win of the 1\lost High, ho,vever 
it may cross your o,vn private inclinations? 




23 


..4nd do you labour to subdue and eradi. 
cate every unkind elnotion and every vici.. 
ous propensity? Hereby we do know, that 
we kno"{ì} Christ, if we keep his comrnand
 
ments. He that saitlt, I know him, and 
keepetlt not his cornmandments, is a liar, and 
the truth is not in hinz. But, whoso keepetk 
his 'Word, in hhn veriZy is the love of God 
pe1feeted. IIereby know we that we are in 
him. Ife, that saith he abidetlt in him, 
fJugltt ltiJ71Self also so to walk, even as he 
walked. I If then ,ve would kno,v, whether 
,ve be under the influence of the I-IoJy 
Spirit, let us consider ho\v far we imitate 
the example and tread in the steps of our 
blessed Saviour. 


1. Perhaps some dejected self-condemned 
penitent may be ready to exclaim; Alas! 
who may abide u'hen God cOlneth in judg- 
ment , 
I Y transgressions and rebellion$ 


I 1 Johnü. 
. 




24 


a"
 so nllJJle
'OllS; my good deeds a1"e Sl) few, 

o trifling, and so ill-pe/formed; 'lny per- 
ft'crseness of temper is so incorrigible; my 
selfishness is so deeply rooted; }]1!J lo'Ce to 
God and riZY brethren is so feeble, so insin- 
cere, and so lukeu.'a1'ln; that I can scarcely 
t'Cnilire to conclude, that I havc received the 
lIoly Spirit into my heart. Wilen I see the 
progress røJtich otlle1" Christians ltave 'llla.dc 
in llolincss<j and cOJ71pare it with my own 
baclaDal'dness; u'hen I contrast their Cheel"- 
ful zeal witlt my Olen 'l'elilctance llnd indiffe- 
rence; I appeal' to 7nyself to be sCa'rcely 
wOl"tlly of bearing e"ccn the name of a be- 
licv
r; nlltch less of being a suitable resi- 
dence, a fz't telnple, for the lloly Ghost. I 
stand condemncd b!J 1ny O'lfll conscience; and 
ltoW can I hope that God '[(.'ill acquit me? 


Such cases as these are far fron1 being 
unfrequent; but, though they lllay be 
painfuJ, they arc the very reverse of being 
dangerous. Let a person in this situation 



225 


consider the wide difference between his 
state of Inind!þ and that of the gay, luxu... 
l'ious ,vorldling. \Vhile the one is depressed 
even to the very dust by a deep sense of 
his o,vn unworthiness, the other is totalIy 
free from an such disquieting reflections. 
He sees not his sinfulness, and perceives 
not his danger. He is little concerned 
either about the promises, or the terrors, 
of religion; and fancies that he cannot but 
be safe in the road ,vhich is trod by so 
many thousands besides himself. 


Fair laughs the morn, aud soft the zephyr blows, 
\Vhile proudly riding o'er the azure realm, 
In gallant trim the gilded vessel goes, 
Youth on the prow, and Pleasure at the helm; 
Regardless of the sweepÍng whirlwind's sway, 
That" hush'd in grim repose, expects his evenmg pre). 


This is general1y the situation of the vo- 
luptuary; and is it more safe, because the 
danger is concealed ,? Can his condition be 
thought preferable to yours? God has 
p 




26 


been pleased in his Inercy to open the eyeq 
of Jour understanding, and to show you 
the hideous gulph \vhich yawns at your feet. 
Can this be a sign of his enmity towards 
you? Surely it is rather a mark of his 
loving kindness, ,a proof that he has not 
yet forgotten to be gracious. You might 
still have been \vrapt in the sleep of spiri- 
tual insensibility, Jike numbers, ,vho must 
daily occur to your observation; and would 
you be \villing to exchange your situation 
for theirs? You \vill readily ans,ver ; No. 
'''hy then, let n1e ask, should you doubt, 
but that God, who has begun a good work 
in you, ,vil1 also in his O\Vll due time 
accon}plish it ? You cannot distrust ,either 
his po\ver, or his love. He is able to save 
even to the uttennost; and his love ,vill 
never pern1Ït hilu to reject any afflicted 
sinner, that comes to him in his son's name. 


.2. You will perhaps say; I find wit/tin 
myself sllch little e1:;dence of IllY being 



9.27 


'Nuder the guidance of tlte Spirit, that I dare 
not llope to '/neet with a favourable reception 
fronz God. 


Consider the reason, why Christ came 
into the \vorld: was it to save the just, or 
the unjust; the angel, or the sinner? If 
,ve had never deflected from our original 
purity, should v{e have had any need of a 
Saviour? GuIlt, not innocence, requires 
expiation. I came not to call tlte righteous, 
but sinners, to 'l'epentance. The question is 
not, ,vhether you have attained to immacu- 
late perfection; but whether JOU are heart- 
ily sorry for your imperfection, and labour 
to make greater advances in holiness. 
Your very self-condemnation shows, that 
you possess at least one Christian grace, 
that of hUll1ility ; and your grief is a proof, 
that you have the desire to becolne better. 
Reflect then a rnoment; whence can this 
hUlnility and this desire have proceeded? 
Are they the deeds of the flesh, or the 
fruits of the Spirit 
 



228 


3. But I fear, tltat these ape tlte only 
fi-'uits which I produce; and tltat they alone 
111'C scarcely slffficient to p'ro-ve, that I am 
in a !tatc of grace. 


Do you imagine then, that you are to 
attain to the summit of Christian practice, 
before you have well set out upon your 
journey? There is a groZt:th in holiness, as 
well as in. the natural body: neither of 
them attain to their fuIl stature suddenly; 
and \ve must be content in both cases to be 
children, before ,ve are men. The main 
point is, whether or no, you are pressing 
fonvard; if you are, ho\vever slow and even 
insensible your progress may be, it is a 
proof that the spiritual life is not extinct. 
Your present situation may be uncomfort- 
able; and it is \visely ordered, that it should 
be so. It effectually prevents you from 
resting satisfied with your present a
tain- 
ments, and constrains you to ]abour more 
abundantly. In the mean time, remember, 
for your comfort, the gracious promise of 



2
9 


him, \vho 
pake as never man s1?ake. 
Blessed are the poor in spirit, for their's is 
the kingdom of heaven. Blessed al'e they 
that mourn, fen' they shall be cOlnforted. 
Blessed are the rneek, for they shall inherit 
the earth. Blessed are they who do hunge1" 
and thirst after righteousness, for they shall 
be filled. I Thus is heaven pron1Ïsed as the 
reward of your humiliation; comfort, as 
the happy result of your sorrow; and the 
fullest satisfaction, as the end of your eager 
desire after a more perfect communion with 
God. 


4. After all, it may very possibly be, that 
you have made a much greater progress in 
religion, than you yourself are conscious of. 
That very Christian, ,vhom you look up to 
as so much your superior, n1ay perhaps at 
the saIne tirne be mourning his own defici- 
ency in those graces, ,vhich to him seem to 


I l\latt. v. 3. 



230 


flourish much more abundantly In !Jour 
heart. rrhey, ,vho are the most advanced 
in holiness, have always the 1110St accurate 
perception of sin; and consequently are 
llluch lllore sensible of their failings, than 
others ,vho have had less experience of 
then1selves. They see so 111uch imperfect- - 
ion in their very best deeds, so Inuch obsti- 
nacy even in their reformed wills, and so 
much corruption in their purest affections; 
that, while they deeply perceive the neces- 
sity' of being saved soleJy by the nlerits of 
Christ, they are apt to think no human heart 
so replete with perverseness as their o,vn. 
Even the laborious Apostle of the Gentiles 
pronounces himself less than the least oj- all 
the Apostles, unworthy of bearing the name 
of an Apostle; and every Christian, ,vho 
possesses the least degree of self-knowledge, 
can illost feelil1gly exculpate him from the 
charge of an affected hunlility. ffhey, 
,vho complacently VIew' their own good 
deeds, and, while they bless themselves 



231 


t11at they are not like other Inen, verily 
believe that they produce the fruits of the 
Spirit in the highest perfection, are much 
further removed from the kingdom of God, 
than the hUlnble, se1f-condemning, penitent, 
sinner, who dares not so llluch as lift up his 
eyes unto heaven. Such an one need in 
no ,vise despair. Though his heart n1ay 
accuse hiln,_ God is greater than his !teart 
... 
and knou:eth all things.) Let hiln redouble 
his diligence, and leave the rest in the 
hands of his Redeemer. The merciful 
Saviour never yet cast out a single person, 
who claimed his assistance and besought 
his in tercession. 


5. I cannot better conclude this descrip- 
tion of the fruits of the Spirit, than ,vith 
the beautiful delineation which St. Paul 
has given us of Christian love; and which, 
if I nlay use the expression, is a miniature 
portrait of every sincere believer. 


· 1 John iii. 20. 



.
3
 


Charity sufferetlt long, and is kind; chari.. 
t!} envyeth not; charity vaunteth not itself, 
is not puffed up, doth not behave itself' un- 
seernl!}, seeketl" not hel t own, is not easily 
provoked, thinketlt no evil; 'rejoiceth not in 
iniquity, but rejoicet't in the truth; bearetlt 
all things, believeth all things, hopeth all 
things, endureth all things.' 



 


- 
 1 Corinth. xiü. 4. 



CHAP. VIII. 


.... -- . 


The constant i1ýluence of the Holy Spirit necessary 
to convey u
 in safety to the end if our Pilgrimage. 


- -- 


WHEN a man has been once deeply con- 
vinced of the extreme sinfulness of his 
heart, and has discovered fronl repeated 
lapses his utter inabiJity to ,valk in the 
way of God's commandments by any inhe. 
rent strength of his o,vn; he will naturalJy 
be anxious to learn, how he is to arrive ill 
safety at the end of his pilgrÏ1nage. He 
kno,vs too well by bitter experience, that 
the moment he is left to himself, he is sure 
to fall more or less from that degree of 
Christian perfection, to ,vhich he had previ.. 



234 


ouslyattained. 'Vhen the supporting arm 
of God is withdra \vn, as a trial of his faith, 
and in order to convince him of his frailty; 
his strength \vithers, his spiritual faculties 
decay, and he beconzes 'l
)eak like any othel't 
'lnan. 1 He finds that the occasional as- 
sistance of the Spirit is not sufficient; but 
that he requires it every day, every hour, 
every minute.:& As the body is unable to 
perform its functions, unless constantly 
supplied \vith the breath of life; ,so does 
the soul constantly require the vivifying 
inspiration of the Holy Ghost. 


In Scripture, spiritual ideas are conveyed 
to our n1Ïnds by natural objects; nor is it 
possible to form a conception of then1 
through any other medium, than that of 


· Judges xvi. ] 7. 



 U Opus est nobis C}llotidia'lla sanctificatione, ut qui 
quotidie delinquimus, delicta nostra sanctificatione assidua 
repurgemus." C:yprian. de Orate Domin. 



235 


some one of our senses. If the Holy 
Ghost bore no other denomination than 
that of the third person of the Trinity, we 
should be unable from such a title to form 
any definite notion of his attributes. But 
,vhen he is styled Ruach and Pneulna, 
words which primarily signify the air in 
motion, w'e are led to conclude, that there 
must be SaIne analogy between his influ.. 
ence upon the soul and "that of the atlnos.. 
phere upon the body. This persuasion is 
strengthened by finding, that the same 
terms are invariably used to describe the 
action both of the divine and the material 
spirit. The play of the lungs, by ,vhich 
the .atmosphere is received into our anhnal 
frames, is termed inspiration; the very 
name, by which the conveyance of super- 
natural po,vers to the lllind, is unifornily 
designated. But ,ve are not to confine the 
term inspiration merely to the gift of pro- 
phecy : ûur church teaches us to give it a 
much more extensive Ineaning, and to 



236 


. 


apply it to that ordinary assistance of the 
Spirit, which every believer is intitIed to 
expect. She directs us to pray, "that the 
thoughts of our hearts Inay be cleansed by 
his inspiration,'" and" that by his holy inspi- 
ration Vie may think the things that be 
good ;,n thus clearly showing, that our re- 
formers, though they rejected aU vain and 
fanatical pretensions to the gift of prophecy 
or the authority of revelation, yet decided. 
ly maintained the necessity of the constant 
o1
dinary inspiration of the Spirit. 'V hat 
that inspiration is, hath already been 
abundantI)' shown in considering those 
operations of the Holy Ghost, which take 
place in the soul of every believer: I mean 
the enlightening of the understanding, the 
rectifying of the ,viII, the purification of 
the affections, and the production of those 


I Collect in Commun. Service. 


: Collect to the 5th Sunde after Easter. 



237 


graces which the Apostle terms fruits of the 
Spirit. 1 


In consequence of the air being thus the 
appointed elnblem of the third person of the 
rrrinity, our Lord compares the operations 
of the one to the operations of the other: 


... 


· " \Ve find in the Scriptures both of the Oid and N e,. 
Testament, that the persons of the eternal Three, and 
[heir economical offices and operations ill the spiritual, are 
represented by the three couditiorls of the celestial fluid, and 
their operations in the material world. Thus the peculiar 
emblem of the Word, or second Person, is the Shemeslt or 
Ligllt; and he is" and does, tbat to the souls or spirits of 
men, which the material or natural light is and does, to 
their bodies. The third Person has no other distinctive 
l1ame in Scripture" but Ruacll. in Hcbrew and Pneuma ill 
Greek, both which words ill their :primary sense denote 
the matf'l'ial $pil'it, or aÌ1' in motio1l; to which appellation 
the epithet Kadesll, Hagion, Holy, or one of tIJe names of 
God, is usually added: and the actions of the Holy 
Spirit in the spiritual system are described by those of the 
aIr In the natural." Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon Vox 



,:). 



 John iü. 8. 




38 


and communicates the gift of the IIo]y 
Ghost to his dIsciples by breathing upon 
them. 1 That wonderful effusion of the 
Spirit on the day of Pentecost ,vas attend- 
.. 
ed ,vith a sound frolll heaven as oj' a 'llzigltly 
'l'llshing wind, expressive of those miracu- 
lous po,vers, ",-hich were the instruínent of 
producing so great a revolution In the 
superstitions of Paganism: and, in the 
mystic epit
alamium of Solomon, the fruc- 
tification of the Church is described b-r 
the soft breezes of the south wind blowing 
among the aroll1atic plants of an eastern 
garden.- 


If we ,vish then to understand the man- 
ner in which the Spirit operates upon the 
soul, ,ve must inquire in what nJanner the air 


I John xx. 22. 
a Cantic. iv. ]6. OUf translators, in the title which 
they have prefixed to the fourth chapter of this divine 
song, give it as their opinion, that in the sixteenth verse 
" the Church prayeth to be made fit for the presence of 
Christ." 



239 


operates upon the body. No,v ,ve find, 
that the air surrounds the body on all sides, 
is perpetually inhaled by it, and is so neces- 
sary to its health, that death is the certain 
consequence of its being withdra\vn. In a 
similar manner, so long as the I-Ioly Ghost 
animates the soul of the Christian, it enjoys 
the highest degree of spiritual health; if 
the vivifying principle be in part ,vith- 
draw'n, the soul languishes; and, if it be 
once entirely removed, what is figuratively 
terrned the second death immediately takes 
place. 1 We are no rnore able to advance 
in our heavenly pilgrimage without the con- 
stant inspiration of the Holy Ghost, than 
,ve should be to accornplish some long 
journey upon earth ,vithout the perpetual 
inspiration of the atn10sphere. To be de- 
prived of 
ither is equally fatal; the one 
to the spiritual, the other to the natural, 
2- 
economy. 


· Revel. xx. 14. 
2. "The branch can bear no fruit, nor preserve nor npe.i1 



240 


On this account, it is a most Ín1portant 
matter to inquire, what scriptural reasons 
we have to expect the unceasing assistance 
of the Ho]y Spirit; for Ine]ancholy indeed 
would be our situation, had ,ve the rOq.,d to 
everlasting ]ife merely pointed out to us, 
and ,vere we thenceforward left to pursue 
it by the unaided exertion of our own 


that which it hath, but by its unity with the root: light 
continues not in the house, but by its dependence on the 
sun; shut out that, all the light is presently gone. Take 
water away from the fire" and its nature will be presently 
stronger than the heat it borrowed, and 8uddenly reduce 
it to its wonted coldness. So ,'re can do nothing' but by 
the constant supplies of the Spirit of Christ. fIe, that 
begins, must finish every good work in us. He", that is the 
author, must be the finisher of our faitb too. Without 
him, we cannot will nor do any good. 'Vithout him.. 
when we have done both, ,,'e cannot continue", but shall 
faint in the way. His Spirit must lead us. His arm 
must heal and strengthen us. As we have received him, 50 
we must walk in him : without him we cannot walk. God 
is the God of all grace: to him it belongeth not only to call" 
but to perfect; Dot only to perfect, but to strengthen, stab- 
usb, settle us." Ep. Reynolds's Sinfulness of Sin, p. ISO. 



241 


strength. The hearts of the stoutest wou1d 
be appalled at the sight of the dangers and 
difficulties which every\vhere present them- 
sel ves, un]ass they 'v ere convinced that God 
himself was' on their side; and the spirits 
even of the Inost vigourous \vould fail them, 
if it \vere a matter of doubt ,vhether the 
Redeemer Inight not possibly desert thenl 
in the last stage of their pilgrimage. Argu- 
ing only from the bare light of reason, it 
surely is unworthy of the goodness of God 
to suppose, that he ,vould forsake his 
children in their greatest need, and lea\Te 
them exposed in their declining years, an 
unresisting prey to all the nlalice of Sa- 
tan. 1 


I It ,vas the fear of this that caused David to exclaim: 
Cast me not a-t.t'uy in the time of age; forsake me not 
when my strength faileth me-Forsake me not, 0 God, 
ill mine ù/d age, when I mn grf'!J-headed; uutzt 1 /w1. ' e 
shou'ed thy strength unto this generation, and tlty pOu.:er to 
all thnn that W'P yct for to come. Psalm lxxi, 8. 16. 


Q 



. ; 4 &J. 
.. ÁÍII 


The . gracious Lord, however, in his 
Iuercy, has not left us to our own vague 
conjectures and unsatisfactory probabili- 
ties. On the contrary, he has armed the 
Christian lvith an abundance of precious 
promises; and bas fortified his mind, 
against the hour of danger, ,vith the most 
soothing assurances of his friendship and 
protection. He kno\veth 'v hat is in luan ; 
and has therefore proviòed hiln ,vith arm- 
our of proof, to enable him to stand fast 
:in the evil day of peril and adversity. He 
has repeatedly declared, that he ,vill never 
forsake his servants, unless they resolutely 
and \vith a high hand forsake hin1; but 
that he ,vill preserve his heritage from aU 
the assaults ofheJI, and safely conduct them 
into the realms of everlasting happiness. 


This God is OU1' God for ever and ev
r; It 
'løill be Olll' guide even unto death.. Man 


J Psalm :xlviii. 14-. 



24J 


re the a.fJlictions of tl
e righteous; but the 
Lord deÜ'cerethltiJll out oj' tltern all. 1 Cast 
tlly burden upon the Lord, and he shall sus- 
tain tltee; he shall never sl!ffel
 the righteous 
to be 'lnoved." Fear not,for I anz "a'itlt tltee; 
be not dislnayed, for I arn thy God; I '{
)ill 
strengthen thee, yea I will help thee, yea I 
will uphold thee u:ith the right hand of my 
1'ighteollsness. J 


Similar to these are the gracious assur- 
ances contained in the N e\v Testament, 
\vhich are admirably calculated to strength- 
en the hearts of the feeble and the dejected. 


I know in wholn I have believed, says the 
Apostle, and aln persuaded that he is able to 
keep that which I have cOlnl1zittcd to him 
until that day.4 Father, says our blessed 
Saviour, I will that they also, whOllZ thou hast 
given me, be with 1ne where I (lIlt; hat they 


I Psalm xxxiv. 19. 
3 Isaiah xli. 10. 


:z Psalm I v. 29. 


.. 2 Tim. i. 12. 



244 


llUlY behold my gZory which thou hast given 
me ; for tholllOl:edst me before the foundation 
of the 'a'orZd,,1 


In order to show the faithful how little 
they have to fear from the assaults of their 
enemies, and to convince them that God is 
on their side, Christ builds the safety of his 
Church upon On1nipoteßce itself: when 
that fails, the ultimate felicity of believers 
w'ill be insecure; but, till then, the gates 
of hell can never prevail against them. 
Iy 
sheep !tear 'l1zY "(.:oice, and I lcnow them, and 
they follow me: and I gi"ce unto them eternal 
life; and they shall ne-cer pel'i
l1, neither 
shall anyone" pluck them, out oj' 'lilY hand. 


I J obn xvii. 24. 

 The strength of the original Greek is much impaired 
in our translation, by inserting the word mall, instead of 
the word one, after the pronoun any; foJ' the passage, 
when thus rendered, hath the appearance of limiting the 
declaration of Christ to a promise of protection only against 
llllman efforts. T.) and OU
ê') evidently relate, not merely. 
to terrest'l'ial þ but abo to infernal, enemies. 



245 


JIy Father, ';;:llic/t ga'ce thcln 1ne, is grea/el' 
than all; and no one is able to plllclc thc'Jn 
(Jut of my Father's hand. 1 


The Ahnighty himself, lnoreo,.er, nlcrci- 
fully foreseeing what a hindrance it ,vould 
be to his children in their spiritual progress 
if they had not good reason to rely upon 
his faithfulness, has confirmed the immu- 
tability of his counsel by an oath;Z and 
l1as been pleased to reveal himself to lnan 
by the t,vo names of Jelto'z:ah and Elollim, 
the one descri ptive of his self-existence, and 
the other allusive to that covenant which 
the eternal Three have sworn to ratify. 
This is the stedfast anchor of the soul; the 
finn assurance of the certainty of all God's 
pronlises; the tennination of strife; and 
the earnest of ilnlnortality.J God is not a 


I John x. 27. 



 Hcb. vi. 17. 


3 "Si tibi vir gravis et laudabilis aliquid poUiceretur, 
haberes utique pollicenti fidem, nee te {alIi aut decipi ab 
eo eredcres, quem stare in sermonibus atque actibus luis 




46 


111an that he should lie; neither the son of 
'Jnan that he should repent: hath he said, and 
shall he not do it? or hath he 
poken, and 
shall he not make it good ? 
 


But, notwithstanding God hath gracious... 
ly promised that he win never forsake those 
that Jove him; yet, since man hath no\v 
recovered his lost freedom of will by the 
preaching of .the Gospel, he may abuse it, 
like Adam, to his o\vn destruction. As a 
man in the full vigour of health llla y be 
guilty of self-murder; so may a Christian 
comn1it what may be termed spiritual sui... 
cide. In this case, it is not God that for- 
sakcth hiln, but he that forsaketh God. 


scires: nunc Deus tecum IO'1uitur; et tu mente incredula 
perfidus fllll_ tuas? Deus de hoc mundo recedenti tibi im- 
mortal it. tern atque æternitatem pollicetur; ct tu dubitas? 
IIoc est Deum om nino non nosse: hoc est Christum cre- 
dentium Dominum et magistrum peccato incredulitatis 
offendere: hoc est in ecclesia constitutum fidem in domo 
fidei non habere." Cyprian. de l\IortaI. 
· Numb. xxiii. ]!J. 



247 


Hence the .A postle \v holeso111eJ y ad vises, 
Let him, that thinketh he standeth, talle heed 
lest he fall. Let him bc,vare of a carnal 
security and a reliance upon sensible com- 
forts, lest he find too late by fatal experi- 
ence, that the promises of Scripture \vere 
not made to the unholy and the impenitent. 
81. Paul has intilnated, that even he himself, 
after converting the \vhole GentiJe world, 
Dlight neverthel
ss be a cast-a,vay, if he 
neglected to use the proper means to make 
his calling and election sure:. ho\v greatly 
ought we then to be\vare, lest ,ve grad uaIl y 
faU a\vay froln our first love, and so Inake 
shipwreck of our salvation. Too frequently 
do \ve behold persons, who originalJy set 
out well on their religious course, at length 


I I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection; 
lest that bg any means (Gr. f.I.'YJ7rCIJ
), when I lta'a preached 
to others, I ñzgself should be a cast-away. 1 Corinth. ix. 
27. I ap.e.,rehend" that the difference between fJ-YJ7rrJ.)
 and 
jyct fJ-YJ, although they are both translated lest, is this; that 
the former implies a possibility of danger, whereas the lat- 
ter relates only to tIle usillg of means to prevent something. 




48 


rejecting the counsel of God against them- 
selves, and dying in so reprobate a state 
that we cannot reasonah]y suppose then) 
to b
 heirs of the pron1Ïsc. Like their types 
the rebeHjous Israelites, who perished in 
the wilderness after they had been delivered 
fronl the bondage of Egypt, these awful 
characters perish through unbeJief ere 
they reach the confines of tbe heavenly 
Canaan: for it is Í1Jlpossible fur those, who 
<<-'ere once enlightened, and ha-ce tasted of the 
!tea'cellly gift, and ü:ere 1Jzade partakers of 
the II :Jly Ghost, and have tasted the good 
word of God and the poti'ers of tlte world to 
come, if they shall jall away, to r'enew thel1
 
again unto l'epentance, seeing they crucify to 
themselves the Son of God afresh, and put 
lzÙn to an open shame. 1 Such persons seem 
to be pointed out by our Lord in his para- 
ble of the sower. 'fhey are the seed, ,vhich 
falls upon stony ground and soon springs 
up in fuIlluxuriancy ; but, having no depth 


· Heb vi, 4. 



249 


of soil, presently withers beneath the scorch. 
ing rays ùf the Sun. These nlelanchol y ex- 
alnples, while they strike the Christian with 
a whoiesollle terror, ought not to produce 
in hin} any distrust of the certainty of God's 
covenant. The Holy Spirit ne\yer leaves a 
man till after he has long striven ,vith hiln 
in vain; nor does God ever give any person 
up to destruction, till he has first gi \.en up 
hilnself. 


The 1'igltteous lnay indeed fall seven times 
in a day, and repeatedly grieve the 1101y 
Ghost by his backwardness and perverse- 
ness. lIe kno,vs and laments his own infir- 
Inities, and his sins are ever before him: 
ne,.ertheless, he resolutely strives against 
them, firmly relying-upon the certainty of 
God's oath. This is his strong consolation 
in the midst of aU his trials; if God be for ll.Y, 
;;,,
ho slu1l1 be against us? Christ hath died 
for us, yea rather hath risen again frolD the 
dead, and perpetual1y lnaketh intercession 
for us. The HoJy Spirit has engaged to 



250 


abide with 'Us for eve-/" ; I and the Father has 
covenanted to accept all those who come 
unto hilTI in his Son's nalne. I-Iere then is 
the sure refuge of the Christian. He relies 
upon the faithfulness of God, 
nd diligently 
app1ies himself to the acquisition of those 
graces, \vhich are required as necessary 
qualifications for the kingdolll of heaven. 
Though his ll1ind 111ay at times be clouded 
,vith doubts and harassed ,vith fears, the 
,vord of promise is his sure anchor. He 
stì'ives to live by faith; the consciousness 
of undeserved lllercy stilnulates hinl to a 
course of cheerful obedience; and he la- 
bours to render unto God the best service) 
. 
the service of the heart. He kno,"\rs, that 
the Holy Spirit is riot given to supersede 
the necessity of any endeavours on his part, 
but to enabìe hinl to labour I110re abun- 
dantly in the cause of religion; not to pro. 
lTIote indolence, but to excite diligence. 
Hence, ,,,bile he is confident of this 1'ery tIling, 


I John xiv. 16. 



251 


tltat lze, which !tath begun a goo..d u'o1'k in-hinl, 
will perform it until the day of Jesus Cll1'ist ;- 
he still continues to r:;ork out his Olcn salva- 
tion 'li:ithffa1
 and t1'embling.'1. 


Such is the strong ground of consolation 
,vhich the Christian possesses; a consola- 
tion not founded upon the deceitfulness of 
feeling, but upon a lively faith in the ex.. 
press promises of God. Frequently is he 
necessitated to believe even against hope; 
but, tbough his heart ,vithin him may be 
desolate, the Holy Spirit still supports him 
in the midst of his infirmit.ies, and enables 
him to exc]ainl ,vith the Psalmist, 1"hollgh 
I walk through tlte t'aUe!} of the shadow of 
death, I 'a'ill fear no e'cil,. for thou art x;;ith 
,ne, thy 'rod, and thy staff, they comfort me. J 
Thus daily strengthened and sustained, he 
fOl'gets those things 'If.1hiclt are behind, and 
presses forward to those 'If.,'hich are yet before 
hint : thus daily increasing in picty and 



 Philip. i. 6. 2. Philip. ü. 12. 3 Psalm xlviii. 14, 



25
 


abounding in every good \vorò and ,vork, 
he by degrees gro,vs up unto a pelfect lnan, 
unto the lneaSllre of tlze stature if tlte fulness 
of Christ. 1 Old things are passed away, and 
all t!zings. are become ne'l(), I-lis understand- 
ing, his will, and his affections, are no 
longer prostituted to the service of Satan, 
but are devoted to the cause of God. Being 
,. justified freely J he is l1lade a son of God 
by adoption, Inade like the itnage of his 
on] y begotten Son Jesus Christ. lIe walks 
religiously in good ,vorks; and at length, 
by God's Inercy, attains to everlasting 
felicity. " 


'I'he result, then, of t.he 'whole inquiry is 
this :-that man by nature is born in sin, a . 
child of \vrath, and utterly unable either to 
think or to do any good by virt
le of his own 
unassisted faculties :-that, although Christ 
laid down- his life for him, he cannot avail 
himself of the benefits which result fi'onl 


J Eph. iv. 13. 



 Art. xvii. 



253 


that mysterious sacrifice, unless a change be 
effected in his understanding, his win, and 
bis affections; so that he n1ay perceive his 
need of a Saviour, desire above all things 
to serve him, and unfeignedly love the way 
of his commandments :-that, being dead 
in trespasses and sins, he is no 1110re able 
to infuse litè into his sou], than a corpse is 
to raise itself up frOln the grave :-that the 
blessed spirit of God is the appointed agent 
to ,vork this great change, to sanctify and 
conlfort the heart of the believer, and to 
conduct him in safety to the reahns of 
everlasting happiness :-that he is the 
uestower of every good and every perfect 
gift, the breath of our spiritual life, and 
the support of onr drooping courage :-that 
through him \ve conlmence' our journey to 
heaven; and that through hinl alone we are 
enabled to persevere even to the end :- 
that, when he hides his face, we are trou- 
bleù ; and, should he totally withdra\v him- 
self, spiritual death ,vould be the Ï1nmediate 
cons(-'qucnce :-but that \ve have a proluise, 



254 


that Il(
 will abide with us for 
ve3';t and on 
the strength of that prolnise, \ve go on our 
,yay, if not always rejoicing, yet always 
,vith such a degree of confidence as God in 
his \visdonl judges to be sufficient for us.- 
To hin1 we hayc comn1Ïtted our souls 
through the 111erits of Christ Jesus; and \VC 
,vait, ,viìh a humble, a trembling, reliance 
upon his word, for that salvation, 'which he 
freely offers to aU who are wiUing to accept 
it. Tile grass witherctll, tile fiou'er fadeth 
 
but tile 'l
:ord of our God shall stand fast for 
e"l'cr.7. The world ll1ay frown upon us, and 
the po\vers of darkness nlay league toge- 
ther against us; but the rock, upon which 
,re are founded, is the sure rock, the rock 
of ages. J 


· John xiv. 16. 


2. Isaiah xl. 8. 



 How animated is the language of Cyprian", when he 
looks forward with the eye of faith to tbe happiness laid 
up for him in the kingdom of heaven. "Considerandum 
est, fratres dilectissimi, et ideutidem cogitandum", renunci- 
asse nos mundo, et tanquam hospites et peregril10s isthic 



255 


.Behold, all they that 'lK:e1
e incensed against 
thee, shall be asha1l1 ed and confounded: they 
shall be as nothing: anà they that strit'e with 


interim degere. Amplectamur dic
, qui assiónat singulos 
domicilio suo; qui nos isthinc ereptos, et laqueis seculari- 
bus ex:,olutos par3diso resti
uit, ct regno cælesti. Quis non 
peregre constitutus properaret ill pati-iam regredi? Quis 
non ad suos navigare festinans, ventull1 prosperum cupi- 
diu
 optaret, ut ,-elocitcr caros liceret amplecti? Patriam 
UO'3tram Paradisul11 computemus, parentes patriarchas 
habere jam cæpimus ; quid 11011 properamus et currimus, 
ut patriam ll?stram videre, ut pm"eutes salutare possimus ? 
1\J aguus iUic nos carorum numerus expectat, parentum, 
fratrum, filiorum frequens nos et copiosa turba desiderat" 
jam de sua immortalitate secura, et adhuc de 110stra salute 
solicita. Ad horum conspectum et complexum venire, 
quanta et illis et nobis in commune lætitia est? Qualis 
illic cælestiurn regnorurn voluptas sine timore moriendi.1 
et ('urn ætemitate vivendi? Quam summa et perpetua 
felicitas? lllic Apostolorum gloriosus chorus: illic pro- 
phetarum exultantium numerus: illic martyrum inI1ume-- 
rabilis populus ob ct:rtaminis et passiollis victoriam coro- 
l1atus: triumph antes illic virgines, quæ concupiscentiam 
carnis et corporis, continentiæ robore subegerunt: remu- 
nerati misericordes, qui alimentis et largitionibus pauperum 
jU:ititiæ opera fecerunt: qui Dominica præcepta servantes 



256 


tllee shall perish. Tholl .shalt seek theln, and 
shalt not find theIn, e"oen tlzel1l that contended 
71.'ltl" thee.: t!tey that wal' against thee shall 
be as nothing, and as a thing oj' nought. F01
 
1, the Lord thy God, 'will hold tit!! right 
lland, saLving unto tltee, Feær not, I will help 
thee. Fea/
 not, t!tou '(t'onn Jacob, and ye 
l1len of Israel: I r;:ill help tl ee, saitlt tIle 
Lord, and thy 1'edeenlel
, the I-Ioly One of 
I.sl
ael- El'en the youths sllall faint and be 
weary, and tIle YOllng lnen slzalluttel'ly fall : 
but they, that 'le;ait upon tlte Lord, shall'l'eneu, 
their st'J'ength; flu.'y shall mOllnt up 'lcith 
'lcings as eagles; they shall run, and not be 
'"a:eary; thel) sllall 'tÐalk, and not jilint. 1 


ad cælestes thesauros terrena patrimonia transtuIerunt. 
Ad hos, fratres dilectissimi, avida cupiditate properemUSj 
ut cum his cito esse, ut cito ad ChristulU venire contingat" 
optcmus." De blort
l. 
J Isaiah xl. .30. and xli. II. 


- 
 



Jjt G:ntJ. 


.... 
 - 


P,.illltd by A, J. 'Palpy, Tooke's Court, Chancery Lent, L
71d(m. 




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